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Constitution Of India Article 308 - Interpretation

 Description [1]In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, the expression State does not include the State of Jammu and Kashmir. ----- 1. Subs. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s.29 and Sch.

Constitution Of India Article 307 - Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to 304

 Description Parliament may by law appoint such authority as it considers appropriate for carrying out the purposes of articles 301, 302, 303 and 304, and confer on the authority so appointed such powers and such duties as it thinks necessary.

Constitution Of India Article 304 - Restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse among States

 Description Notwithstanding anything in article 301 or article 303, the Legislature of a State may by law: (a) impose on goods imported from other States or the Union territories[1] any tax to which similar goods manufactured or produced in that State are subject, so, however, as not to discriminate between goods so imported and goods so manufactured or produced; and (b) impose such reasonable restrictions on the freedom of trade, commerce or intercourse with or within that State as may be required in the public interest: Provided that no Bill or amendment for the purposes of clause(b) shall be introduced or moved in the Legislature of a State without the previous sanction of the President. ----- 1. Ins. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s.29 and Sch.Description Notwithstanding anything in article 301 or article 303, the Legislature of a State may by law: (a) impose on goods imported from other States or the Union territories[1] any tax to which similar goods manufact

Constitution Of India Article 302 - Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse

 Description Parliament may by law impose such restrictions on the freedom of trade, commerce or intercourse between one State and another or within any part of the territory of India as may be required in the public interest.

Constitution Of India Article 301 - Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse

 Description Subject to the other provisions of this Part, trade, commerce and intercourse throughout the territory of India shall be free.

Constitution Of India Article 300A - Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law

 Description [1]No person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law. ----- 1. Ins. by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s.34 (w.e.f. 20-6-1979).

Constitution Of India Article 300 - Suits and proceedings

 Description (1) The Government of India may sue or be sued by the name of the Union of India and the Government of a State may sue or be sued by the name of the State and may, subject to any provisions which may be made by Act of Parliament or of the Legislature of such State enacted by virtue of powers conferred by this Constitution, sue or be sued in relation to their respective affairs in the like cases as the Dominion of India and the corresponding Provinces or the corresponding Indian States might have sued or been sued if this Constitution had not been enacted. (2) If at the commencement of this Constitution: (a) any legal proceedings are pending to which the Dominion of India is a party, the Union of India shall be deemed to be substituted for the Dominion in those proceedings; and (b) any legal proceedings are pending to which a Province or an Indian State is a party, the corresponding State shall be deemed to be substituted for the Province or the Indian State in those procee

Constitution Of India Article 299 - Contracts

 Description (1) All contracts made in the exercise of the executive power of the Union or of a State shall be expressed to be made by the President, or by the Governor[1] of the State, as the case may be, and all such contracts and all assurances of property made in the exercise of that power shall be executed on behalf of the President or the Governor by such persons and in such manner as he may direct or authorise. (2) Neither the President nor the Governor[2] shall be personally liable in respect of any contract or assurance made or executed for the purposes of this Constitution, or for the purposes of any enactment relating to the Government of India heretofore in force, nor shall any person making or executing any such contract or assurance on behalf of any of them be personally liable in respect thereof. ----- 1. Certain words "or the Rajpramukh" omitted by s.29 and Sch., ibid. 2. Certain words "nor the Rajpramukh" omitted by s.29 and Sch., ibid.

Constitution Of India Article 286 - Restrictions as to imposition of tax on the sale or purchase of goods

 Description (1) No law of a State shall impose, or authorise the imposition of, a tax on the sale or purchase of goods where such sale or purchase takes place: (a) outside the State; or (b) in the course of the import of the goods into, or export of the goods out of, the territory of India. [1] (2) Parliament may by law formulate principles for determining when a sale or purchase of goods takes place in any of the ways mentioned in clause (1). (3) Any law of a State shall, in so far as it imposes, or authorises the imposition of,: (a) a tax on the sale or purchase of goods declared by Parliament by law to be of special importance in inter-State trade or commerce; or [2](b) a tax on the sale or purchase of goods, being a tax of the nature referred to in sub-clause (b), sub-clause (c) or sub-clause(d) of clause(29A) of article 366, be subject to such restrictions and conditions in regard to the system of levy, rates and other incidents of the tax as Parliament may by law specify[3]. ---

Constitution Of India Article 282 - Expenditure defrayable by the Union or a State out of its revenues

 Description The Union or a State may make any grants for any public purpose, notwithstanding that the purpose is not one with respect to which Parliament or the Legislature of the State, as the case may be, may make laws.

Constitution Of India Article 280 - Finance Commission

 Description (1) The President shall, within two years from the commencement of this Constitution and thereafter at the expiration of every fifth year or at such earlier time as the President considers necessary, by order constitute a Finance Commission which shall consist of a Chairman and four other members to be appointed by the President. (2) Parliament may by law determine the qualifications which shall be requisite for appointment as members of the Commission and the manner in which they shall be selected. (3) It shall be the duty of the Commission to make recommendations to the President as to: (a) the distribution between the Union and the States of the net proceeds of taxes which are to be, or may be, divided between them under this Chapter and the allocation between the States of the respective shares of such proceeds; (b) the principles which should govern the grants-in-aid of the revenues of the States out of the Consolidated Fund of India; [1](bb) the measures needed to au

Constitution Of India Article 275 - Grants from the Union to certain States

 Description (1) Such sums as Parliament may by law provide shall be charged on the Consolidated Fund of India in each year as grants-in-aid of the revenues of such States as Parliament may determine to be in need of assistance, and different sums may be fixed for different States: Provided that there shall be paid out of the Consolidated Fund of India as grants-in-aid of the revenues of a State such capital and recurring sums as may be necessary to enable that State to meet the costs of such schemes of development as may be undertaken by the State with the approval of the Government of India for the purpose of promoting the welfare of the Scheduled Tribes in that State or raising the level of administration of the Scheduled Areas therein to that of the administration of the rest of the areas of that State: Provided further that there shall be paid out of the Consolidated Fund of India as grants-in-aid of the revenues of the State of Assam sums, capital and recurring, equivalent to: (a

Constitution Of India Article 270 - Taxes levied and distributed between the Union and the States

 Description [1](1) All taxes and duties referred to in the Union List, except the duties and taxes referred to in articles[2] 268 and 269, respectively, surcharge on taxes and duties referred to in article 271 and any cess levied for specific purposes under any law made by Parliament shall be levied and collected by the Government of India and shall be distributed between the Union and the States in the manner provided in clause (2). (2) Such percentage, as may be prescribed, of the net proceeds of any such tax or duty in any financial year shall not form part of the Consolidated Fund of India, but shall be assigned to the States within which that tax or duty is leviable in that year, and shall be distributed among those States in such manner and from such time as may be prescribed in the manner provided in clause (3). (3) In this article, "prescribed" means,: (i) until a Finance Commission has been constituted, prescribed by the President by order, and (ii) after a Finance

Constitution Of India Article 268 - Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the States.

 Description (1) Such stamp duties and such duties of excise on medicinal and toilet preparations as are mentioned in the Union List shall be levied by the Government of India but shall be collected? (a) in the case where such duties are leviable within any Union territory[1], by the Government of India, and (b) in other cases, by the States within which such duties are respectively leviable. (2) The proceeds in any financial year of any such duty leviable within any State shall not form part of the Consolidated Fund of India, but shall be assigned to that State. ----- 1. Subs. by s.29 and Sch., ibid.

Constitution Of India Article 267 - Contingency Fund

 *.Description (1) Parliament may by law establish a Contingency Fund in the nature of an imprest to be entitled the Contingency Fund of India into which shall be paid from time to time such sums as may be determined by such law, and the said Fund shall be placed at the disposal of the President to enable advances to be made by him out of such Fund for the purposes of meeting unforeseen expenditure pending authorisation of such expenditure by Parliament by law under article 115 or article 116. (2) The Legislature of a State[1] may by law establish a Contingency Fund in the nature of an imprest to be entitled the Contingency Fund of the State into which shall be paid from time to time such sums as may be determined by such law, and the said Fund shall be placed at the disposal of the Governor of the State to enable advances to be made by him out of such Fund for the purposes of meeting unforeseen expenditure pending authorisation of such expenditure by the Legislature of the State by la

ConConstitution Of India Article 266 - Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States

 Description (1) Subject to the provisions of article 267 and to the provisions of this Chapter with respect to the assignment of the whole or part of the net proceeds of certain taxes and duties to States, all revenues received by the Government of India, all loans raised by that Government by the issue of treasury bills, loans or ways and means advances and all moneys received by that Government in repayment of loans shall form one consolidated fund to be entitled "the Consolidated Fund of India", and all revenues received by the Government of a State, all loans raised by that Government by the issue of treasury bills, loans or ways and means advances and all moneys received by that Government in repayment of loans shall form one consolidated fund to be entitled "the Consolidated Fund of the State". (2) All other public moneys received by or on behalf of the Government of India or the Government of a State shall be credited to the public account of India or the pu

Constitution Of India Article 265 - Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law

 Description No tax shall be levied or collected except by authority of law.

Constitution Of India Article 280 - Finance Commission

 Description (1) The President shall, within two years from the commencement of this Constitution and thereafter at the expiration of every fifth year or at such earlier time as the President considers necessary, by order constitute a Finance Commission which shall consist of a Chairman and four other members to be appointed by the President. (2) Parliament may by law determine the qualifications which shall be requisite for appointment as members of the Commission and the manner in which they shall be selected. (3) It shall be the duty of the Commission to make recommendations to the President as to: (a) the distribution between the Union and the States of the net proceeds of taxes which are to be, or may be, divided between them under this Chapter and the allocation between the States of the respective shares of such proceeds; (b) the principles which should govern the grants-in-aid of the revenues of the States out of the Consolidated Fund of India; [1](bb) the measures needed to au

Constitution Of India Article 279 - Calculation of "net proceeds", etc.

 Description (1) In the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, net proceeds means in relation to any tax or duty the proceeds thereof reduced by the cost of collection, and for the purposes of those provisions the net proceeds of any tax or duty, or of any part of any tax or duty, in or attributable to any area shall be ascertained and certified by the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India, whose certificate shall be final. (2) Subject as aforesaid, and to any other express provision of this Chapter, a law made by Parliament or an order of the President may, in any case where under this Part the proceeds of any duty or tax are, or may be, assigned to any State, provide for the manner in which the proceeds are to be calculated, for the time from or at which and the manner in which any payments are to be made, for the making of adjustments between one financial year and another, and for any other incidental or ancillary matters.

Constitution Of India Article 275 - Grants from the Union to certain States

 Description (1) Such sums as Parliament may by law provide shall be charged on the Consolidated Fund of India in each year as grants-in-aid of the revenues of such States as Parliament may determine to be in need of assistance, and different sums may be fixed for different States: Provided that there shall be paid out of the Consolidated Fund of India as grants-in-aid of the revenues of a State such capital and recurring sums as may be necessary to enable that State to meet the costs of such schemes of development as may be undertaken by the State with the approval of the Government of India for the purpose of promoting the welfare of the Scheduled Tribes in that State or raising the level of administration of the Scheduled Areas therein to that of the administration of the rest of the areas of that State: Provided further that there shall be paid out of the Consolidated Fund of India as grants-in-aid of the revenues of the State of Assam sums, capital and recurring, equivalent to: (a

Constitution Of India Article 270 - Taxes levied and distributed between the Union and the States

 Description [1](1) All taxes and duties referred to in the Union List, except the duties and taxes referred to in articles[2] 268 and 269, respectively, surcharge on taxes and duties referred to in article 271 and any cess levied for specific purposes under any law made by Parliament shall be levied and collected by the Government of India and shall be distributed between the Union and the States in the manner provided in clause (2). (2) Such percentage, as may be prescribed, of the net proceeds of any such tax or duty in any financial year shall not form part of the Consolidated Fund of India, but shall be assigned to the States within which that tax or duty is leviable in that year, and shall be distributed among those States in such manner and from such time as may be prescribed in the manner provided in clause (3). (3) In this article, "prescribed" means,: (i) until a Finance Commission has been constituted, prescribed by the President by order, and (ii) after a Finance

Constitution Of India Article 268 - Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the States.

 Description (1) Such stamp duties and such duties of excise on medicinal and toilet preparations as are mentioned in the Union List shall be levied by the Government of India but shall be collected? (a) in the case where such duties are leviable within any Union territory[1], by the Government of India, and (b) in other cases, by the States within which such duties are respectively leviable. (2) The proceeds in any financial year of any such duty leviable within any State shall not form part of the Consolidated Fund of India, but shall be assigned to that State. ----- 1. Subs. by s.29 and Sch., ibid.

Constitution Of India Article 267 - Contingency Fund

 Description (1) Parliament may by law establish a Contingency Fund in the nature of an imprest to be entitled the Contingency Fund of India into which shall be paid from time to time such sums as may be determined by such law, and the said Fund shall be placed at the disposal of the President to enable advances to be made by him out of such Fund for the purposes of meeting unforeseen expenditure pending authorisation of such expenditure by Parliament by law under article 115 or article 116. (2) The Legislature of a State[1] may by law establish a Contingency Fund in the nature of an imprest to be entitled the Contingency Fund of the State into which shall be paid from time to time such sums as may be determined by such law, and the said Fund shall be placed at the disposal of the Governor of the State to enable advances to be made by him out of such Fund for the purposes of meeting unforeseen expenditure pending authorisation of such expenditure by the Legislature of the State by law

Constitution Of India Article 266 - Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States

 Description (1) Subject to the provisions of article 267 and to the provisions of this Chapter with respect to the assignment of the whole or part of the net proceeds of certain taxes and duties to States, all revenues received by the Government of India, all loans raised by that Government by the issue of treasury bills, loans or ways and means advances and all moneys received by that Government in repayment of loans shall form one consolidated fund to be entitled "the Consolidated Fund of India", and all revenues received by the Government of a State, all loans raised by that Government by the issue of treasury bills, loans or ways and means advances and all moneys received by that Government in repayment of loans shall form one consolidated fund to be entitled "the Consolidated Fund of the State". (2) All other public moneys received by or on behalf of the Government of India or the Government of a State shall be credited to the public account of India or the pu

Constitution Of India Article 256 - Obligation of States and th

 Description The executive power of every State shall be so exercised as to ensure compliance with the laws made by Parliament and any existing laws which apply in that State, and the executive power of the Union shall extend to the giving of such directions to a State as may appear to the Government of India to be necessary for that purpose.

Constitution Of India Article 253 - Legislation for giving effect to international agreements

 Description Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, Parliament has power to make any law for the whole or any part of the territory of India for implementing any treaty, agreement or convention with any other country or countries or any decision made at any international conference, association or other body.

Constitution Of India Article 252 - Power of Parliament to legislate for two or more States by consent and adoption of such legislation by any other State Description

 Description (1) If it appears to the Legislatures of two or more States to be desirable that any of the matters with respect to which Parliament has no power to make laws for the States except as provided in articles 249 and 250 should be regulated in such States by Parliament by law, and if resolutions to that effect are passed by all the Houses of the Legislatures of those States, it shall be lawful for Parliament to pass an act for regulating that matter accordingly, and any Act so passed shall apply to such States and to any other State by which it is adopted afterwards by resolution passed in that behalf by the House or, where there are two Houses, by each of the Houses of the Legislature of that State. (2) Any Act so passed by Parliament may be amended or repealed by an Act of Parliament passed or adopted in like manner but shall not, as respects any State to which it applies, be amended or repealed by an Act of the Legislature of that State.

Constitution Of India Article 250 - Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to any matter in the State List if a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation

 Description (1) Notwithstanding anything in this Chapter, Parliament shall, while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, have power to make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the State List. (2) A law made by Parliament which Parliament would not but for the issue of a Proclamation of Emergency have been competent to make shall, to the extent of the incompetency, cease to have effect on the expiration of a period of six months after the Proclamation has ceased to operate, except as respects things done or omitted to be done before the expiration of the said period.

Constitution Of India Article 249 - Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the national interest

 Description (1) Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, if the Council of States has declared by resolution supported by not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest that Parliament should make laws with respect to any matter enumerated in the State List specified in the resolution, it shall be lawful for Parliament to make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India with respect to that matter while the resolution remains in force. (2) A resolution passed under clause (1) shall remain in force for such period not exceeding one year as may be specified therein: Provided that, if and so often as a resolution approving the continuance in force of any such resolution is passed in the manner provided in clause (1), such resolution shall continue in force for a further period of one year from the date on which under this clause it would otherwise have ceased to be in force. (

Constitution Of India Article 248 - Residuary powers of legislation

 Description (1) Parliament has exclusive power to make any law with respect to any matter not enumerated in the Concurrent List or State List. (2) Such power shall include the power of making any law imposing a tax not mentioned in either of those Lists.

Constitution Of India Article 246 - Subject-matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States

  Description (1) Notwithstanding anything in clauses(2) and (3), Parliament has exclusive power to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in List I in the Seventh Schedule (in this Constitution referred to as the Union List). (2) Notwithstanding anything in clause (3), Parliament, and, subject to clause(1), the Legislature of any State[1] also, have power to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in List III in the Seventh Schedule (in this Constitution referred to as the Concurrent List). (3) Subject to clauses(1) and (2), the Legislature of any State[1] has exclusive power to make laws for such State or any part thereof with respect to any of the matters enumerated in List II in the Seventh Schedule (in this Constitution referred to as the State List'). (4) Parliament has power to make laws with respect to any matter for any part of the territory of India[2] not included in a State notwithstanding that such matter is a matter enumerated in the S

Constitution Of India Article 245 - Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States

 Description (1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Parliament may make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India, and the Legislature of a State may make laws for the whole or any part of the State. (2) No law made by Parliament shall be deemed to be invalid on the ground that it would have extra-territorial operation.

Constitution Of India Article 244 - Administration of Scheduled Areas and tribal areas

 Description [2](1) The provisions of the Fifth Schedule shall apply to the administration and control of the Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes in any State[1] other than the States of Assam, Meghalaya[3], Tripura and Mizoram[4]. [2](2) The provisions of the Sixth Schedule shall apply to the administration of the tribal areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya[3], Tripura and Mizoram[5]. ----- 1. Omitted words by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s.29 and Sch. 2. Subs. by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971 (81 of 1971), s.71, (w.e.f. 21-1-1972). 3. Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1984, s.2, (w.e.f. 1-4-1985). 4. Subs. by the State of Mizoram Act, 1986 (34 of 1986), s.39, (w.e.f. 20-2-1987). 5. Subs. by s.39, ibid., (w.e.f. 20-2-1987).

Constitution Of India Article 243W - Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc.

 Description Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislature of a State may, by law, endow: (a) the Municipalities with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as institutions of self-government and such law may contain provisions for the devolution of powers and responsibilities upon Municipalities, subject to such conditions as may be specified therein, with respect to: (i) the preparation of plans for economic development and social justice; (ii) the performance of functions and the implementation of schemes as may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matters listed in the Twelfth Schedule; (b) the Committees with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to carry out the responsibilities conferred upon them including those in relation to the matters listed in the Twelfth Schedule.

Constitution Of India Article 243G - Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats

 Description Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislature of a State may, by law, endow the Panchayats with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as institutions of self-government and such law may contain provisions for the devolution of powers and responsibilities upon Panchayats at the appropriate level, subject to such conditions as may be specified therein, with respect to: (a) the preparation of plans for economic development and social justice; (b) the implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice as may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matters listed in the Eleventh Schedule.

Constitution Of India Article 243 - Definitions

 Description In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires,: (a) district means a district in a State; (b) Gram Sabha means a body consisting of persons registered in the electoral rolls relating to a village comprised within the area of Panchayat at the village level; (c) intermediate level means a level between the village and district levels specified by the Governor of a State by public notification to be the intermediate level for the purposes of this Part; (d) Panchayat means an institution (by whatever name called) of self-government constituted under article 243B, for the rural areas; (e) Panchayat area means the territorial area of a Panchayat; (f) Population means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published; (g) village means a village specified by the Governor by public notification to be a village for the purposes of this Part and includes a group of villages so specified

Constitution Of India Article 239 - Administration of Union territories

 Description (1) Save as otherwise provided by Parliament by law, every Union territory shall be administered by the President acting, to such extent as he thinks fit, through an administrator to be appointed by him with such designation as he may specify. [1](2) Notwithstanding anything contained in Part VI, the President may appoint the Governor of a State as the administrator of an adjoining Union territory, and where a Governor is so appointed, he shall exercise his functions as such administrator independently of his Council of Ministers. ----- 1. Subs. by s.17, ibid.

Constitution Of India Article 238 - Repealed

 Description [The States in Part B of the First Schedule]. Rep. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s.29 and Sch.

Constitution Of India Article 233 - Appointment of district judges

 Description (1) Appointments of persons to be, and the posting and promotion of, district judges in any State shall be made by the Governor of the State in consultation with the High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to such State. (2) A person not already in the service of the Union or of the State shall only be eligible to be appointed a district judge if he has been for not less than seven years an advocate or a pleader and is recommended by the High Court for appointment.

Constitution Of India Article 231 - Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States

 Description (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the preceding provisions of this Chapter, Parliament may by law establish a common High Court for two or more States or for two or more States and a Union territory. (2) In relation to any such High Court,: [2]***** (b) the reference in article 227 to the Governor shall, in relation to any rules, forms or tables for subordinate courts, be construed as a reference to the Governor of the State in which the subordinate courts are situate; and (c) the references in articles 219 and 229 to the State shall be construed as a reference to the State in which the High Court has its principal seat: [1]Provided that if such principal seat is in a Union territory, the references in articles 219 and 229 to the Governor, Public Service Commission, Legislature and Consolidated Fund of the State shall be construed respectively as references to the President, Union Public Service Commission, Parliament and Consolidated Fund of India. ----- 1. Subs.

Constitution Of India Article 227 - Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court

 Description [1](1) Every High Court shall have superintendence over all courts and tribunals throughout the territories[2] in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction. (2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, the High Court may: (a) call for returns from such courts; (b) make and issue general rules and prescribe forms for regulating the practice and proceedings of such courts; and (c) prescribe forms in which books, entries and accounts shall be kept by the officers of any such courts. (3) The High Court may also settle tables of fees to be allowed to the sheriff and all clerks and officers of such courts and to attorneys, advocates and pleaders practising therein: Provided that any rules made, forms prescribed or tables settled under clause (2) or clause (3) shall not be inconsistent with the provision of any law for the time being in force, and shall require the previous approval of the Governor. (4) Nothing in this article shall be deemed to confer on

Constitution Of India Article 226 - Power of High Courts to issue certain writs

 Description [1](1) Notwithstanding anything in article 32[2], every High Court shall have power, throughout the territories in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction, to issue to any person or authority, including in appropriate cases, any Government, within those territories directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, or any of them, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by Part III and for any other purpose[3]. (2) The power conferred by clause(1) to issue directions, orders or writs to any Government, authority or person may also be exercised by any High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to the territories within which the cause of action, wholly or in part, arises for the exercise of such power, notwithstanding that the seat of such Government or authority or the residence of such person is not within those territories. (3) Where any party against whom an interim order, w

Constitution Of India Article 225 - Jurisdiction of existing High Courts

 Description Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to the provisions of any law of the appropriate Legislature made by virtue of powers conferred on that Legislature by this Constitution, the jurisdiction of, and the law administered in, any existing High Court, and the respective powers of the Judges thereof in relation to the administration of justice in the Court, including any power to make rules of Court and to regulate the sittings of the Court and of members thereof sitting alone or in Division Courts, shall be the same as immediately before the commencement of this Constitution: [2]Provided that any restriction to which the exercise of original jurisdiction by any of the High Courts with respect to any matter concerning the revenue or concerning any act ordered or done in the collection thereof was subject immediately before the commencement of this Constitution[1] shall no longer apply to the exercise of such jurisdiction. ----- 1. Omitted by the Constitution (For

Constitution Of India Article 217 - Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court

 Description [1](1) Every Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal on the recommendation of the National Judicial Appointments Commission referred to in article 124A[9], and shall hold office, in the case of an additional or acting Judge, as provided in article 224, and in any other case, until he attains the age of sixty-two years[2]: Provided that: (a) a Judge may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office; (b) a Judge may be removed from his office by the President in the manner provided in clause (4) of article 124 for the removal of a Judge of the Supreme Court; (c) the office of a Judge shall be vacated by his being appointed by the President to be a Judge of the Supreme Court or by his being transferred by the President to any other High Court within the territory of India. (2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge of a High Court unless he is a citizen of India and: (a) has fo

Constitution Of India Article 215 - High Courts to be courts of record

 Description Every High Court shall be a court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself.

Constitution Of India Article 214 - High Courts for States

 Description There shall be a High Court for each State. [1](1) [2](2) [2](3) ----- 1. Omitted by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s.29 and Sch. 2. Omitted by s.29 and Sch., ibid.

Constitution Of India Article 213 - Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature

 Description (1) If at any time, except when the Legislative Assembly of a State is in session, or where there is a Legislative Council in a State, except when both Houses of the Legislature are in session, the Governor is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require: Provided that the Governor shall not, without instructions from the President, promulgate any such Ordinance if: (a) a Bill containing the same provisions would under this Constitution have required the previous sanction of the President for the introduction thereof into the Legislature; or (b) he would have deemed it necessary to reserve a Bill containing the same provisions for the consideration of the President; or (c) an Act of the Legislature of the State containing the same provisions would under this Constitution have been invalid unless, having been reserved for the consideration of the

Constitution Of India Article 201 - Bills reserved for consideration

 Description When a Bill is reserved by a Governor for the consideration of the President, the President shall declare either that he assents to the Bill or that he withholds assent therefrom: Provided that, where the Bill is not a Money Bill, the President may direct the Governor to return the Bill to the House or, as the case may be, the Houses of the Legislature of the State together with such a message as is mentioned in the first proviso to article 200 and, when a Bill is so returned, the House or Houses shall reconsider it accordingly within a period of six months from the date of receipt of such message and, if it is again passed by the House or Houses with or without amendment, it shall be presented again to the President for his consideration.

Constitution Of India Article 200 - Assent to Bills

 Description When a Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State or, in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, has been passed by both Houses of the Legislature of the State, it shall be presented to the Governor and the Governor shall declare either that he assents to the Bill or that he withholds assent therefrom or that he reserves the Bill for the consideration of the President: Provided that the Governor may, as soon as possible after the presentation to him of the Bill for assent, return the Bill if it is not a Money Bill together with a message requesting that the House or Houses will reconsider the Bill or any specified provisions thereof and, in particular, will consider the desirability of introducing any such amendments as he may recommend in his message and, when a Bill is so returned, the House or Houses shall reconsider the Bill accordingly, and if the Bill is passed again by the House or Houses with or without amendment and presented to the Gove

Constitution Of India Article 194 - Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of the members and committees thereof

 Description (1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to the rules and standing orders regulating the procedure of the Legislature, there shall be freedom of speech in the Legislature of every State. (2) No member of the Legislature of a State shall be liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in the Legislature or any committee thereof, and no person shall be so liable in respect of the publication by or under the authority of a House of such a Legislature of any report, paper, votes or proceedings. [1](3) In other respects, the powers, privileges and immunities of a House of the Legislature of a State, and of the members and the committees of a House of such Legislature, shall be such as may from time to time be defined by the Legislature by law, and, until so defined, shall be those of that House and of its members and committees immediately before the coming into force of section 26 of the Constitution (Forty-fourth Am

Constitution Of India Article 191 - Disqualifications for membership

 Description (1) A person shall be disqualified for being chosen as, and for being, a member of the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of a State: (a) if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State specified in the First Schedule, other than an office declared by the Legislature of the State by law not to disqualify its holder; (b) if he is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court; (c) if he is an undischarged insolvent; (d) if he is not a citizen of India, or has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a foreign State, or is under any acknowledgment of allegiance or adherence to a foreign State; (e) if he is so disqualified by or under any law made by Parliament. [1]Explanation: For the purposes of this clause, a person shall not be deemed to hold an office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State specified in the First Schedule by reason only that he is a Minister either for the U

Constitution Of India Article 171 - Composition of the Legislative Councils

 Description (1) The total number of members in the Legislative Council of a State having such a Council shall not exceed one third[1] of the total number of members in the Legislative Assembly of that State: Provided that the total number of members in the Legislative Council of a State shall in no case be less than forty. (2) Until Parliament by law otherwise provides, the composition of the Legislative Council of a State shall be as provided in clause (3). (3) Of the total number of members of the Legislative Council of a State: (a) as nearly as may be, one-third shall be elected by electorates consisting of members of municipalities, district boards and such other local authorities in the State as Parliament may by law specify; (b) as nearly as may be, one-twelfth shall be elected by electorates consisting of persons residing in the State who have been for at least three years graduates of any university in the territory of India or have been for at least three years in possession

Constitution Of India Article 170 - Composition of the Legislative Assemblies

 Description [1](1) Subject to the provisions of article 333, the Legislative Assembly of each State shall consist of not more than five hundred, and not less than sixty, members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the State. (2) For the purposes of clause (1), each State shall be divided into territorial constituencies in such manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to it shall, so far as practicable, be the same throughout the State. Explanation: In this clause, the expression population means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published: [2]Provided that the reference in this Explanation to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026[3] have been published, be construed as a reference to the 2001[4] census. (3) Upon the comple

Constitution Of India Article 169 - Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States

 Description (1) Notwithstanding anything in article 168, Parliament may by law provide for the abolition of the Legislative Council of a State having such a Council or for the creation of such a Council in a State having no such Council, if the Legislative Assembly of the State passes a resolution to that effect by a majority of the total membership of the Assembly and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of the Assembly present and voting. (2) Any law referred to in clause (1) shall contain such provisions for the amendment of this Constitution as may be necessary to give effect to the provisions of the law and may also contain such supplemental, incidental and consequential provisions as Parliament may deem necessary. (3) No such law as aforesaid shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368.

Constitution Of India Article 168 - Constitution of Legislatures in States

 Description (1) For every State there shall be a Legislature which shall consist of the Governor, and (a) in the States of Andhra Pradesh[3], Bihar,[1] [4]Madhya Pradesh, [5]Maharashtra[6],[11] Karnataka[7],[2] Tamil Nadu, Telegana[8] and [9]Uttar Pradesh,[10] two Houses; (b) in other States, one House. (2) Where there are two Houses of the Legislature of a State, one shall be known as the Legislative Council and the other as the Legislative Assembly, and where there is only one House, it shall be known as the Legislative Assembly. ----- 1. No date has been appointed under s.8(2) of the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, for the insertion of the words Madhya Pradesh in this sub-clause. 2. Ins. by Act 16 of 2010, s. 3 (Date yet to be notified). 3. Ins. by the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Council Act, 2005 (1 of 2006), s.3 (w.e.f. 30-3-2007). 4. Word "Bombay" omitted by the Bombay Reorganisation Act, 1960 (11 of 1960), s.20 (w.e.f. 1-5-1960). 5. Words "Tamil Nadu,&

Constitution Of India Article 165 - Advocate-General for the State

 Description (1) The Governor of each State shall appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed a Judge of a High Court to be Advocate-General for the State. (2) It shall be the duty of the Advocate-General to give advice to the Government of the State upon such legal matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may from time to time be referred or assigned to him by the Governor, and to discharge the functions conferred on him by or under this Constitution or any other law for the time being in force. (3) The Advocate-General shall hold office during the pleasure of the Governor, and shall receive such remuneration as the Governor may determine.

Constitution Of India Article 164 - Other provisions as to Ministers

 Description (1) The Chief Minister shall be appointed by the Governor and the other Ministers shall be appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister, and the Ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the Governor: Provided that in the States of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand[2], Madhya Pradesh and Odisha, there shall be a Minister in charge of tribal welfare who may in addition be in charge of the welfare of the Scheduled Castes and backward classes or any other work. (1A) The total number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the Council of Ministers in a State shall not exceed fifteen per cent. of the total number of members of the Legislative Assembly of that State: Provided that the number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister in a State shall not be less than twelve: Provided further that where the total number of Ministers including the Chief Minister in the Council of Ministers in any State at the commencement of the Constitution (Ninety-first Am

Constitution Of India Article 163 - Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor

 Description (1) There shall be a Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister at the head to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise of his functions, except in so far as he is by or under this Constitution required to exercise his functions or any of them in his discretion. (2) If any question arises whether any matter is or is not a matter as respects which the Governor is by or under this Constitution required to act in his discretion, the decision of the Governor in his discretion shall be final, and the validity of anything done by the Governor shall not be called in question on the ground that he ought or ought not to have acted in his discretion. (3) The question whether any, and if so what, advice was tendered by Ministers to the Governor shall not be inquired into in any court.

Constitution Of India Article 162 - Extent of executive power of State

 Description Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of the State has power to make laws: Provided that in any matter with respect to which the Legislature of a State and Parliament have power to make laws, the executive power of the State shall be subject to, and limited by, the executive power expressly conferred by this Constitution or by any law made by Parliament upon the Union or authorities thereof. Article 162 Article 162 of the Constitution lays down the extent of executive power of the State. Executive power is the authority to govern the State and to enforce orders. The 7th Schedule of the Constitution of India gives the allocation of powers and functions between the Union (Centre) and the States. It consists of three lists - Union List, State List and the Concurrent List. The Union Government/Parliament has the exclusive power to legislate on matters relating to items in

Constitution Of India Article 161 - Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases

 Description The Governor of a State shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the State extends.

Constitution Of India Article 156 - Term of office of Governor

 Description (1) The Governor shall hold office during the pleasure of the President. (2) The Governor may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office. (3) Subject to the foregoing provisions of this article, a Governor shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office: Provided that a Governor shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office.

Constitution Of India Article 155 - Appointment of Governor

 Description The Governor of a State shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal.

Constitution Of India Article 154 - Executive power of State

 Description (1) The executive power of the State shall be vested in the Governor and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with this Constitution. (2) Nothing in this article shall: (a) be deemed to transfer to the Governor any functions conferred by any existing law on any other authority; or (b) prevent Parliament or the Legislature of the State from conferring by law functions on any authority subordinate to the Governor.onstitution Of India Article 154 - Executive power of State

Constitution Of India Article 153 - Governors of States

 Description There shall be a Governor for each State: [1]Provided that nothing in this article shall prevent the appointment of the same person as Governor for two or more States. ----- 1. Added by s.6, ibid.

Constitution Of India Article 152 - Definition

 Description [1]In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, the expression State does not include the State of Jammu and Kashmir. ----- 1. Subs. by s.29 and Sch., ibid.

Constitution Of India Article 151 - Audit reports

 Description (1) The reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India relating to the accounts of the Union shall be submitted to the President, who shall cause them to be laid before each House of Parliament. (2) The reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India relating to the accounts of a State shall be submitted to the Governor[1] of the State, who shall cause them to be laid before the Legislature of the State. ----- 1. Words "or Rajpramukh" omitted by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s.29 and Sch.

Constitution Of India Article 150 - Form of accounts of the Union and of the States

 Description [1]The accounts of the Union and of the States shall be kept in such form as the President may, on the advice of the Comptroller[2] and Auditor-General of India, prescribe. ----- 1. Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s.27 (w.e.f. 1-4-1977). 2. Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s.22 (w.e.f. 20-6-1979).

Constitution Of India Article 148 - Comptroller and Auditor-General of India

 Description (1) There shall be a Comptroller and Auditor-General of India who shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal and shall only be removed from office in like manner and on the like grounds as a Judge of the Supreme Court. (2) Every person appointed to be the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India shall, before he enters upon his office, make and subscribe before the President, or some person appointed in that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule. (3) The salary and other conditions of service of the Comptroller and Auditor-General shall be such as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until they are so determined, shall be as specified in the Second Schedule: Provided that neither the salary of a Comptroller and Auditor-General nor his rights in respect of leave of absence, pension or age of retirement shall be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment. (4) The Comp

Constitution Of India Article 147 - Interpretation

 Description In this Chapter and in Chapter V of Part VI, references to any substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution shall be construed as including references to any substantial question of law as to the interpretation of the Government of India Act, 1935 including any enactment amending or supplementing that Act), or of any Order in Council or order made thereunder, or of the Indian Independence Act, 1947, or of any order made thereunder.

Constitution Of India Article 145 - Rules of Court, etc

 Description (1) Subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament, the Supreme Court may from time to time, with the approval of the President, make rules for regulating generally the practice and procedure of the Court including: (a) rules as to the persons practising before the Court; (b) rules as to the procedure for hearing appeals and other matters pertaining to appeals including the time within which appeals to the Court are to be entered; (c) rules as to the proceedings in the Court for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by Part III; [2](cc) rules as to the proceedings in the Court under article 139A[1]; (d) rules as to the entertainment of appeals under sub-clause (c) of clause (1) of article 134; (e) rules as to the conditions subject to which any judgement pronounced or order made by the Court may be reviewed and the procedure for such review including the time within which applications to the Court for such review are to be entered; (f) rules as to the cos

Constitution Of India Article 144 - Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court

 Description All authorities, civil and judicial, in the territory of India shall act in aid of the Supreme Court.

Constitution Of India Article 143 - Power of President to consult Supreme Court

 Description (1) If at any time it appears to the President that a question of law or fact has arisen, or is likely to arise, which is of such a nature and of such public importance that it is expedient to obtain the opinion of the Supreme Court upon it, he may refer the question to that Court for consideration and the Court may, after such hearing as it thinks fit, report to the President its opinion thereon. (2) The President may, notwithstanding anything in[1] the proviso to article 131, refer a dispute of the kind mentioned in the said proviso[2] to the Supreme Court for opinion and the Supreme Court shall, after such hearing as it thinks fit, report to the President its opinion thereon. ----- 1. Omitted Words by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s.29 and Sch. 2. Subs. by s.29 and Sch., ibid.

Constitution Of India Article 142 - Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to discovery, etc

 Description (1) The Supreme Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction may pass such decree or make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it, and any decree so passed or order so made shall be enforceable throughout the territory of India in such manner as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and, until provision in that behalf is so made, in such manner as the President may by order prescribe. (2) Subject to the provisions of any law made in this behalf by Parliament, the Supreme Court shall, as respects the whole of the territory of India, have all and every power to make any order for the purpose of securing the attendance of any person, the discovery or production of any documents, or the investigation or punishment of any contempt of itself.

Constitution Of India Article 141 - Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts

 Description The law declared by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all courts within the territory of India.

Constitution Of India Article 139 - Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs

 Description Parliament may by law confer on the Supreme Court power to issue directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, or any of them, for any purposes other than those mentioned in clause (2) of article 32.

Constitution Of India Article 138 - Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court

 Description (1) The Supreme Court shall have such further jurisdiction and powers with respect to any of the matters in the Union List as Parliament may by law confer. (2) The Supreme Court shall have such further jurisdiction and powers with respect to any matter as the Government of India and the Government of any State may by special agreement confer, if Parliament by law provides for the exercise of such jurisdiction and powers by the Supreme Court.

Constitution Of India Article 137 - Review of judgments or orders by the Supreme Court

 Description Subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament or any rules made under article 145, the Supreme Court shall have power to review any judgment pronounced or order made by it.

Constitution Of India Article 136 - Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court

 Description (1) Notwithstanding anything in this Chapter, the Supreme Court may, in its discretion, grant special leave to appeal from any judgment, decree, determination, sentence or order in any cause or matter passed or made by any court or tribunal in the territory of India. (2) Nothing in clause (1) shall apply to any judgment, determination, sentence or order passed or made by any court or tribunal constituted by or under any law relating to the Armed Forces.

Constitution Of India Article 135 - Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law to be exercisable by the Supreme Court

 Description Until Parliament by law otherwise provides, the Supreme Court shall also have jurisdiction and powers with respect to any matter to which the provisions of article 133 or article 134 do not apply if jurisdiction and powers in relation to that matter were exercisable by the Federal Court immediately before the commencement of this Constitution under any existing law.

Constitution Of India Article 134A - Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court

 Description Every High Court, passing or making a judgement, decree, final order, or sentence, referred to in clause (1) of article 132 or clause (1) of article 133, or clause (1) of article 134,: (a) may, if it deems fit so to do, on its own motion; and [1](b) shall, if an oral application is made, by or on behalf of the party aggrieved, immediately after the passing or making of such judgment, decree, final order or sentence, determine, as soon as may be after such passing or making, the question whether a certificate of the nature referred to in clause (1) of article 132, or clause (1) of article 133 or, as the case may be, sub-clause (c) of clause (1) of article 134, may be given in respect of that case. ----- 1. Ins. by s.20, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-8-1979).

Constitution Of India Article 134 - Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters

 Description (1) An appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgment, final order or sentence in a criminal proceeding of a High Court in the territory of India if the High Court: (a) has on appeal reversed an order of acquittal of an accused person and sentenced him to death; or (b) has withdrawn for trial before itself any case from any court subordinate to its authority and has in such trial convicted the accused person and sentenced him to death; or (c) certifies under article 134A[1] that the case is a fit one for appeal to the Supreme Court: Provided that an appeal under sub-clause(c) shall lie subject to such provisions as may be made in that behalf under clause (1) of article 145 and to such conditions as the High Court may establish or require. (2) Parliament may by law confer on the Supreme Court any further powers to entertain and hear appeals from any judgment, final order or sentence in a criminal proceeding of a High Court in the territory of India subject to such

Constitution Of India Article 133 - Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in regard to civil matters

 Description [2](1) An appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgment, decree or final order in a civil proceeding of a High Court in the territory of India if the High Court certifies under article 134A: (a) that the case involves a substantial question of law of general importance; and [1](b) that in the opinion of the High Court the said question needs to be decided by the Supreme Court. (2) Notwithstanding anything in article 132, any party appealing to the Supreme Court under clause (1) may urge as one of the grounds in such appeal that a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution has been wrongly decided. (3) Notwithstanding anything in this article, no appeal shall, unless Parliament by law otherwise provides, lie to the Supreme Court from the judgment, decree or final order of one Judge of a High Court. ----- 1. Subs. by the Constitution (Thirtieth Amendment) Act, 1972, s.2, for clause(1) (w.e.f. 27-2-1973). 2. Subs. by the Constitution (

Constitution Of India Article 132 - Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in certain cases

 Description (1) An appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgement, decree or final order of a High Court in the territory of India, whether in a civil, criminal or other proceeding, if the High Court certifies under article 134A[1] that the case involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution. [2] [3](3) Where such a certificate is given, any party in the case may appeal to the Supreme Court on the ground that any such question as aforesaid has been wrongly decided. Explanation: For the purposes of this article, the expression final order includes an order deciding an issue which, if decided in favour of the appellant, would be sufficient for the final disposal of the case. ----- 1. Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s.17. (w.e.f. 01-08-1979). 2. Omitted Clause(2) by s.17, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-8-1979). 3. Omitted Words by s.17, ibid.(w.e.f. 1-8-1979).

Constitution Of India Article 131 - Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court

 Description Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Supreme Court shall, to the exclusion of any other court, have original jurisdiction in any dispute: (a) between the Government of India and one or more States; or (b) between the Government of India and any State or States on one side and one or more other States on the other; or (c) between two or more States, if and in so far as the dispute involves any question (whether of law or fact) on which the existence or extent of a legal right depends: [1]Provided that the said jurisdiction shall not extend to a dispute arising out of any treaty, agreement, covenant, engagement, sanad or other similar instrument which, having been entered into or executed before the commencement of this Constitution, continues in operation after such commencement, or which provides that the said jurisdiction shall not extend to such a dispute. ----- 1. Subs. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s.5.

Constitution Of India Article 130 - Seat of Supreme Court

 Description The Supreme Court shall sit in Delhi or in such other place or places, as the Chief Justice of India may, with the approval of the President, from time to time, appoint.

Constitution Of India Article 129 - Supreme Court to be a court of record

 Description The Supreme Court shall be a court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself.

Constitution Of India Article 128 - Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court

 Description Notwithstanding anything in this Chapter, [1]the National Judicial Appointments Commission may at any time, with the previous consent of the President, request any person who has held the office of a Judge of the Supreme Court or of the Federal Court or who has held the office of a Judge of a High Court and is duly qualified for appointment as a Judge of the Supreme Court to sit and act as a Judge of the Supreme Court[2], and every such person so requested shall, while so sitting and acting, be entitled to such allowances as the President may by order determine and have all the jurisdiction, powers and privileges of, but shall not otherwise be deemed to be, a Judge of that Court: Provided that nothing in this article shall be deemed to require any such person as aforesaid to sit and act as a Judge of that Court unless he consents so to do. ----- 1. Subs. by the Constitution (Ninety-Nine Amendment) Act, s.5 (w.e.f. 31-12-14). 2. Ins. by the Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment

Constitution Of India Article 127 - Appointment of ad hoc Judges

 Description (1) If at any time there should not be a quorum of the Judges of the Supreme Court available to hold or continue any session of the Court, [1]the National Judicial Appointments Commission on a reference made to it by the Chief Justice of India, may with the previous consent of the President and after consultation with the Chief Justice of the High Court concerned, request in writing the attendance at the sittings of the Court, as an ad hoc Judge, for such period as may be necessary, of a Judge of a High Court duly qualified for appointment as a Judge of the Supreme Court to be designated by the Chief Justice of India. (2) It shall be the duty of the Judge who has been so designated, in priority to other duties of his office, to attend the sittings of the Supreme Court at the time and for the period for which his attendance is required, and while so attending he shall have all the jurisdiction, powers and privileges, and shall discharge the duties, of a Judge of the Supreme