Thursday, 7 July 2022

Kinds of law

                                                                      Kinds of law 

The world is derived from knowledge of law. Law can also be called as a science which deals with creation, exploration and enforcement of laws. Have you ever wondered how world would survive if there was no law? There will be just distruction and injustice all over the place. Law means Statutes, Acts, Rules, Regulations, Orders, and Ordinances from point of view of legislature. Law means Rules of court, Decrees, Judgment, Orders of courts, and Injunctions from the point of view of Judges.

It is not easy to give a precise definition of law, because of several difficulties. Firstly the term is embeded in philosophical perplexities. secondly, its traditional method of definition is totally inadequate.  That's why we can define law in simple way in the terms of which one can distinguish what is law from what is not law according to such definition. 

In this article we going to talk about kinds of law, but before that we need to understand its purpose, i.e by "law" is understood 'any rule of action' law in its most general sense and not civil law, i.e the law of land, although civil law is also a kind of law. 

There are in-total twelve kinds of laws which we'll look through: 

1. Practical or Technical law

It consists of Principles and rules for the attainment of certain ends e.g. laws of health, laws of architecture. These rules guide us as to what we ought to do in order to attain certain ends.

2. Common law

It is also known as jurisprudence, is a body of unwritten laws based on judicial precedents. The concept is based on institutionalized judgments and interpretations from the courts and the jury. Common laws also illustrate the motivation for the implementation of new legislation.

3. Physical or Scientific law

It is an expression of the uniformilities of nature, being general principals expressing the regularity and harmony in the operation of the universe. 

4. Conventional law

Any rule or system of rules agreed upon by persons for the regulation of their conduct towards each other. It is a form of special law. For example, rules of a club or a co-operative society or any voluntary organization are instances of a conventional law.

5. Imperative Law 

It means law which is not optional or default law. A rule of action imposed upon mere by some authority which enforces obedience to it. In other words it is a command enforced by some superior power either physically or in any other form of compulsion.

6. Natural or Moral Law

Natural law, in philosophy, system of right or justice held to be common to all humans and derived from nature rather than from the rules of society, or positive law. This concept may be classified by saying that natural justice is one meted out by GOD or NATURE. 

 

7. Customary Law 

Customary law is a set of customs, practices and beliefs that are accepted as obligatory rules of conduct by indigenous peoples and local com- munities. Customary law forms an intrinsic part of their social and economic systems and way of life.

 

8. General and Special Law

General law consist of general or ordinary law of the land. Special law consist of certain other bodies of legal rules, which are soo special and exceptional in their nature, sources or application, that is convenient to treat them as standing outside the general and ordinary law.

 

9. Public International Law

It refers to legal body of rules and regulations governing international relations between different states and international institutions describing rules, norms, and standards that apply between sovereign state and other entities which are legally recognized as international actors. It sets rules concerning all mankind. The environment, international business, the ocean, human rights, etc.

 

10. Prize Law

A prize is a legal capture at sea during wartime. This concept arose in customary international law in connection with the seizure at sea of enemy property in naval warfare, which may include ships and cargo at sea during times of international armed conflict. It is not a international tribunal. It is a court establish exclusively to the individual state by which the ship and cargo is taken.

 

11. Constitutional law

Constitutional law, the body of rules, doctrines, and practices that govern the operation of political communities. In modern times the most important political community has been the state. It s a body of law which defines the role, powers, and structure of different entities within a state, namely, the executive, the parliament or legislature, and the judiciary, as well as the basic rights of citizens.

 

12. Administrative and Municipal Law

It is closely related to constitutional law. Administrative laws deals mainly with the administration of the executive departments of the state and delegated legislation. Municipal laws on the other hand deals with thee promotion and preservation of public health, water, construction etc. 



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