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Life Imprisonment in India

 Life Imprisonment in India

Unquestionably, witnesses play an essential role in providing assistance to the court in order to ensure that justice is administered correctly and efficiently In any type of case, evidence is crucial, but it is the witness who sheds light on the difficulties that have been emphasised in that particular case that is most important. Through a number of legislative measures, a structure and procedure for witness examination have been established, with Sections 135 to 166 of the Evidence Act governing the examination of witnesses.

In order to understand what the term "Witness" refers to, it is first and foremost important to define it. As stated in Section 31, when it is said that there are two components of 'Evidence,' this refers to the 'witness' as the first component of evidence and recorded evidence as the second component of evidence. Oral evidence is also defined, which in its most basic form is all statements that are permitted by the court or compelled to be made before it by witnesses with reference to the facts that are the subject of an investigation. The definition of documentary evidence is also included in this section. It is necessary that this form of proof be straightforward.

Make a purchase order in terms of production.

According to Section 35 of the Indian Evidence Act, the handling of production orders as well as witness examination are being considered for implementation. Witness examination is covered in detail in the CPC's Order 18 and in Chapters 18, 19, 21 and 24 of the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC). This is a crucial question since it determines who will be the first to question the witness and in what order this will take place. The gathering of evidence is the responsibility of the prosecution's side in a criminal trial, not the defence.

S. 311 of the Criminal Procedure Code grants courts broad authority to summon and interrogate witnesses, as well as any other person present who the court deems to be relevant. It also allows the authorities to recall and re-interrogate witnesses who have already been interviewed, if the circumstances warrant. When it comes to gathering evidence, any variation from the established order has the potential to create substantial prejudice to one or more parties or to result in a miscarriage of justice.

Regarding witness examination, the following is the sequence of events:

This approach is broken into three steps, which are based on the English Common Law method. Examining the evidence in chief is the initial process, followed by cross-examination and, eventually, the re-examination of the evidence. (4) The definitions of all three examinations are dealt with in Section 137 of the Evidence Act, and the order in which they are performed is defined in line with Section 138 of the Evidence Act. It is necessary for the cross-examination to be effective that it not be limited to the facts that the witness has attested to; on the other hand, it is not necessary for the cross-examination to be limited to the facts that the witness has attested to in order for it to be effective. The feature of re-examination comes after the cross-examination and aids in the clarification of the picture painted by the witnesses' testimony by bringing it into sharper focus.


During the cross-examination, the court has ordered that the use of vulgar or scandalous questions will be barred by law.

5.Those that are either irrelevant to the facts in question or have the potential to insult or irritate the witness who is being cross-examined by the defence attorney are classified as "inappropriate."

7. The various types of witness examination, as well as their pros and disadvantages, are as follows:

Inquiry by the Chief Examiner

A witness who has been summoned by one of the parties is subjected to an examination in chief8, which is a formal legal term. As soon as the oath is taken and affirmed, this is the first stage in the complete examination procedure that will follow. In this scenario, the testimony and evidence of the witnesses are the most important factors to consider. Parties seek to establish the nature of their case by confining the scope of their discussion to only the relevant facts and circumstances.

One thing that a sophisticated chief examination is capable of detecting is a great variety of different things. In this form of test, questions that are deemed to be leading ones are not shown to the candidates. The credibility of the witness is a vital aspect that must be kept in mind, and his or her testimony must be relevant to the case at hand.

The golden rule9, which indicates that there must be clarity, outline questions must be produced, acceptable language must be utilised, relevant portions must be given precedence, and flexible questions must be provided discourse, should be followed when preparing for this test.

Examination of the Evidence in the Course of a Cross-Examination

This examination serves a vital function as part of the examination of witnesses, and it is often regarded as one of the most important procedures for determining and obtaining the truth10. At the request of the adverse party11, an attempt is made to verify the validity as well as the credibility of a witness's statements and testimony, with the primary goal of this examination being to verify the veracity and credibility of the witness's statements and testimony, with the primary goal of this examination being to verify the veracity and credibility of a witness's statements and testimony. Questions other than those relevant to the facts may be asked during the course of this examination12, but questions that are deceptive are not permitted to be asked.

Natural justice principles, as well as other rights common to the legal profession, recognise the right of a party to cross-examine a specific witness, which is in contrast to the rights of other litigants. Because perjury is a criminal offence in a court of law, the need of cross-examination plays a crucial role in the process of discovering the truth14 in a legal proceeding. By not doing this technique of cross-examining the witness, the adverse party is inferring that the witness's assertions are true, and there is no opportunity for any subsequent grievance to be raised if the adverse party does not conduct this procedure. Example: If an adverse party wishes to cross-examine but is denied permission by the court for reasons best known to the court, the evidence in question is presumed to have been excluded from consideration altogether 16.

Re-Examination

The witness has the opportunity to explain a question that arises during the course of cross-examination during this style of examination. This form of examination is typically restricted to simply such types of inquiries. Efforts are made to clarify any expressions that the witness may have used over the course of the proceeding. Additional issues could be brought, but only after receiving the requisite authority from the court, and the opposing party would be given the right to cross-examine those issues17.

As a result, the purpose of main examination is witness examination under oath, the objective of cross examination is to disclose truth, and the purpose of re-examination is to eliminate vagueness. The court must obtain permission18 before any lead-in questions can be asked during the course of the trial or re-examination, but they are permitted to be asked during cross-examination.


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