Recognition of State
The international community is a collection of sovereign states operating on a global scale. Recognition of an entity as a state is critical for any state to enjoy the rights, duties, and obligations of international law and to be a member of the international community. Only when the entity has been recognized as a state is it recognized by other members of the International Community. The act of recognition is regarded by international law as a separate act of the existing statehood community. Recognition of state under the International Legal System can be defined as “the formal acknowledgement or acceptance of a new state as an international personality by the existing States of the International community”. It the acknowledgement by the existing state that a political entity has the characteristics of statehood.
Article 1 of the Montevideo Conference of 1933 defines a state as a person and specifies the following key characteristics that an entity must exhibit in order to be recognised as a state:
It should have a permanent population.
A definite territory should be controlled by it.
There should be a government of that particular territory.
That entity should have the capacity to enter into relations with other
Legal Effects of such recognition
When a country achieves recognition, it gains specific rights, obligations, and privileges, such as.
It gains the ability to form diplomatic ties with other countries.
It gains the ability to sign treaties with other countries.
The state has all of the rights and privileges that come with being a member of the international community.
State succession is a possibility.
The right to sue and be sued comes with the recognition of a state.
The country has the option of joining the United Nations.
Modes of Recognition
There are two modes of recognition of State:
De facto Recognition
De Jure Recognition
De Facto Recognition
De facto recognition is a form of interim statehood recognition. It's the first step toward de jure recognition. It is a true and momentary recognition of a state, and it might be conditional or unconditional. When a new state has a sufficient territory and control over a certain territory, but the other existing states believe it lacks stability or has other unsettling difficulties, this manner recognition is provided. As a result, we can think of it as a control test for freshly generated states. De facto recognition is the process of a non-committal act of acknowledging a new state.The states that have de facto recognition are ineligible to join the United Nations. Israel, Taiwan, and Bangladesh, for example.
De Jurie Recognition
De jure recognition is the recognition of a new state by the existing state when they consider that the new state fulfils all the essential characteristics of a state. The de jure recognition can be granted either with or without granting de facto recognition. This mode of recognition is granted when the newly formed state acquires permanent stability and statehood The De jure mode of recognition grants the permanent status of a newborn state as a sovereign state.
In the case of Luther v. Sagar, it was held in this case that for the purpose of giving effect to the internal acts of the recognised authority there is no distinction between de facto and de jure.