Sunday, 23 January 2022

Unemployment - By Isha

 Introduction


Closely associated with the problem of poverty is the problem of unemployment because when people remain idle they become poor. If there are needs to be satisfied, then men must must be employed in satisfying them. Unemployment leads not only to suffering and deprivation but also affects adversely the social organisation.


Types of Unemployment


Subjective Unemployment: 

Subjective Unemployment is caused by physical and mental problems of an individual like Voluntary Unemployment where the worker voluntarily withdraws himself from the work.


2.  Objective Unemployment:


It is of many types. These different types are mentioned below:


Seasonal Unemployment-  Workers get job only for a certain period of the year or in a particular season, when the season is over labourers become idle and they are left with no work. Eventually they have to wait for the next season to come and find some work.

Agricultural Unemployment-            This kind of unemployment is a result of the very seasonal nature of agricultural work, lack of demand for homemade products, sub- divisions of landholdings etc.

Technological and Frictional unemployment –  Technological unemployment is caused due to ‘ ‘friction’ i.e. an imbalance between the supply of labourers and the demand for it. This kind of change results in closing of certain factories leaving behind a trait of unemployment.

Cyclical Unemployment-  Due to the trade cycles , booms , reversions, depressions are some basic phenomenon of the business world. Such ups and downs, affect the volume of unemployment which is directly related to business cycle.

Educational Unemployment – A close relation exists between the job opportunities and the system of education. The Kothari Commission (1964-66) admitted long back that there is a wide gulf between ” the contents of the present education and purposes and the concerns of  National Development” . Hence, every year we are producing thousands of degree holders only to join the tank of the educated unemployment youths.

Under Employment or Involuntary Unemployment- It refers to a condition in which the self employed working people are not able to work to their full capacity.

Structural or Open Unemployment – It is a result of the lack of complementary resources especially capital. Open unemployment occurs when a large labour force does not get work opportunities that may fetch them regular income.


Causes of Unemployment


There are two main types of causes of unemployment:


Individual or Personal Factors

Age factor

Vocational unfitness

Illness or physical disability

2.  External Factors or Technological and Economic factors


Trade cycles

Enormous increase in population

Technological advancement

Strikes

Slow economic growth rate

Backwardness of Indian culture

3. Other Causes


Inadequate facilities for self employment

Loopholes in educational system

Unwillingness to accept blue collared jobs

Improper utilisation of manpower

Remedial Measures for Unemployment


The problem of unemployment is spreading like cancer in the society. The complex natured issue of unemployment will have to be handled in a planned manner. No single measure can provide sure remedy to this problem. Some solutions to the problem of unemployment are mentioned below:


Population Control

Promoting Economic Development

Initiation of irrigation project to generate employment in agricultural sector.

Development of fisheries, forest and animal husbandry.

Encouragement of cottage and household industries.

Promoting growth of commercial crops like tea, coffee, tobacco, cashews, groundnuts etc.

3.  Industrial Development


Development of large scale industries.

Development of small scale industries.

Keeping a check on multinational companies.

4.  Educational reforms – Like practical training, role of employment exchange agencies, vocational training and guidance to youth.


5. Generation of employment opportunities by Information technology, Foreign Direct Investment, retail sector etc.


6. Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 ( National Rural Employment Guarantee Act). This act provides at least 100 days guaranteed employment every year to at least one adult member per family.


Conclusion


In India the problem of unemployment among the educated youth is assuming serious proportions. The faculty system of our education has been responsible for it. We are admitting thousands of young boys and girls to the institutions of higher learning without any prospects of employment for them. Even the technical people like engineers, doctors, and those trained in specialised jobs are without employment. Unemployment is a great cause of social disorganisation. This crisis in Indian Society today is largely a crisis of finding suitable jobs for the millions who join institutions aimlessly and come out of them only to suffer frustration outside and become deviant. Unless and until employment opportunities increase fast enough, poverty cannot be removed.


 


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