Friday, 11 February 2022


 Ratification by Kalyani

If an agent enters into a contract without the authority of the principal, it does not, of course, bind the principle. however the principle may subsequently ratify i.e. adopt, the benefit and liabilities of the contract made on his behalf.

In order to be recognized in a legal sense, a ratification must be:

  • Intelligent

  • Voluntary

  • Deliberate

The individual ratifying the contract must also know that failure to ratify would eliminate the requirements and agreements outlined in the contract.

After ratifying or confirming a contract, the infant from the previous example may have implied responsibilities based on actions after coming of age. However, if a contract was rescinded instead of ratified, someone else could be responsible for the contract, especially if it wasn't signed legally. After reaching the legal age, the infant could confirm the contract through ratification and take advantage of any benefits outlined in its terms. 

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