Friday, 4 February 2022



In an agreement, there's a constant reciprocal promise. Even in an agreement of sale, both the seller and the buyer have to carry out their duties. And if the buyer does now no longer pay the seller his due, the seller turns into an unpaid seller. In this approach, such an unpaid seller has a few rights towards the buyer. Let us see. 

  • Rights of Unpaid Seller Against Buyer

When the buyer of products does now no longer pay his dues to the seller, the seller turns into an unpaid seller. And now the seller has positive rights towards the buyer. Such rights are the seller`s treatment towards the breach of the agreement through the buyer. Such rights of the unpaid seller are extra to the rights towards the products he sold. 

  1. Suit for Price

Under the agreement of sale if the belongings of the products are already surpassed however, he refuses to pay for the products the seller turns into an unpaid seller. In one of these cases. the seller can sue the buyer for wrongfully refusing to pay him his due.

But say the income agreement says that the charge might be paid at a later date no matter the transport of products. And on one of these days, if the buyer refuses to pay, the unpaid seller can also additionally sue for the charge of those goods. The real transport of the products isn't of significance in keeping with the law. 

  1. Suit for Damages for Non-Acceptance

If the buyer wrongfully refuses or neglects to simply accept and pay the unpaid seller, the seller can sue the buyer for damages brought about because of his non-popularity of products. Since the buyer refused to shop for the products with no simple cause, the seller can also additionally face positive damages. 

The degree of such damages is determined through Section 73 of the Indian Contract Act 1872, which offers damages and penalties. Take as an instance the case of seller A. He has the same opinion to promote to B one hundred litres of milk for a determined charge. On the day, B refuses to simply accept the products for no justifiable reason. A isn't capable of discovering some other buyer and the milk is going bad. In one of these cases, A can sue B for damages. 

  1. Repudiation of Contract earlier than Due Date

If the buyer repudiates the agreement earlier than the transport date of the products the seller can nonetheless sue for damages. Such an agreement is taken into consideration as a rescinded agreement, and so the seller can sue for breach of the agreement. This is included withinside the Indian Contract Act and is called Anticipatory Breach of Contract. 

  1. Suit for Interest

If there's a particular settlement among the events the seller can sue for the hobby quantity because of him from the buyer. This is whilst each event has specially agreed at the hobby fee to be paid to the seller from the date on which the charge turns into due.

But if the events do now no longer have such precise terms, nonetheless the courtroom docket can also additionally award the seller with the hobby quantity because of him at a fee which it sees fit. 

  • Remedies of Buyer Against the Seller

Just as the seller can rescind the agreement, then so can the seller. When the seller breaches the agreement, the buyer additionally has positive treatments towards the seller. Let us test a few treatments that the Sales Act prescribes for the buyer. 

  1. Damages of Non-Delivery

If the seller wrongfully or neglectfully refuses to supply the products to the buyer, then the buyer can sue for non-transport of the products. According to Section 57 of the Sale of Goods Act, if the buyer faces losses because of the wrongful movements of the seller (non-transport) he can sue for damages brought about because of this. 

Let`s take as an instance A who has the same opinion to promote to B 10 pairs of footwear for 1000/- each. B turned into going to promote the identical footwear to C for 1100/- a pair. A neglect to supply the products to B. Now, B can sue A for non-transport. He can sue for the quantity of one hundred/- in line with pair, i.e. 1000/- (the distinction among B`s fee charge and sale charge) 

  1. Suit for Specific Performance

If the seller commits a breach of agreement, the buyer can technique the courtroom docket to invite the seller for precise performance. The courtroom docket after deliberation can command the seller for precise performance. One essential factor to preserve in thoughts is this treatment is best to be had if the products are ascertained or precise. 

Example: There turned into an agreement among A and B, that A will promote to B a completely highly-priced portray on a particular date. On the stated day A refuses to promote. B can technique the courtroom docket, which orders A to promote the portray to B on the ascertained charge. 

  1. Suit for Breach of Warranty

When the seller breaches the guarantee of the products, the buyer can't truly reject the products on one of these bases. The buyer has alternatives in one of these cases,

  • installation towards the buyer the stated breach of the guarantee withinside the extinction of the charge

  • or sue the seller for breach of guarantee 

  1. Repudiation of Contract

If the seller repudiates the agreement, the buyer does now no longer ought to wait till the date of the agreement. He can deal with the agreement as rescinded and sue for damages immediately. This might be an anticipatory breach of the agreement.


Written by Parul Sharma

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