TYPES OF MARRIAGE UNDER HINDU LAW
Brahma form of marriage is said to be the best and mostly practiced throughout India. It is considered an advanced stage of social progress. Manu, the Hindu law-giver, laid so much importance on this form of marriage that he placed it even above divine marriage.
The Daiva form of marriage was slightly different from the Brahma form of marriage in the sense that the suitor was an official priest. Special qualities like good character, scholarship in the Vedas or good family background of the bridegroom were not emphasized in selection. “The rite which sages call ‘Daiva’ is the gift of a daughter whom her father has decked in gay attire when the sacrifice is already begin, to the officiating priest, who performs the act of religion. The Daiva form of marriage was described by Manu as “the gift of a daughter, after having adorned her, to a sacrificial present rightly doing his work in a sacrifice begun.”
When the father gives his daughter away after having received from the bridegroom one pair of kine, or two pairs for uses prescribed by law, that marriage is termed Arsha”. This form of marriage is called Arsha because it was current mostly in the priestly families as its very name suggests. In this form of marriage, the pair of kine, or two pairs, constitute the price of the bride.
In this form of marriage, the father gives away his daughter with due honour saying, distinctly: “May both of you perform together your civil and religious duties “You two be the partners for performing religious and secular duties. The very name Prajapatya indicates that the pair enters the solemn bond for repayment of debts or rinas to Prajapati for procreation and upbringing of children. The basic condition in this form of marriage is that the bridegroom is to treat the bride as a partner for secular and religious purposes and the proposal comes from the bridegroom who is a suitor for the damsel.
In the Asura form of marriage, the bride was given to the husband in payment of a consideration called ‘sulka” or bride-price. When the bridegroom, having given its much wealth as he can afford to the father or paternal kinsmen and to the damsel herself, takes her voluntarily as his bride ‘ it Is called the Asura Marriage.
The Gandharva form of marriage is the union of a man and a woman by mutual consent. According to Manu .The voluntary connection of a maiden and a man is to be known as a Gandharva union which arises from lust
In simple terms the ‘Rakshasa’ form of marriage may be described as marriage by capture, resembling the right of a victor to the person of the captive in war. this type of marriage is banned under section 366 of ipc .
it is the worst form of marriage which focuses on bounding the wife and capture of wife by the husband it is a marriage prohibited under section 375 which is rape and it is not acceptable under the society
there are 8 types of marriages among the hindus as given by the law giver manu , who defines marriage as the contract between a vara and vadhu . there are certain acceptable and unacceptable forms of marriages too like the paishacha and rakshasa marriage . some of the marriages are highly acceptable like the brahma and deva marriage .