Types of Motions in the Parliament – By Isha
Motions and resolutions
Motion- It is a procedural device by which functions of the House are sought to be achieved. It proposes a question or suggests a course of action before the House.
Resolution – It is a self contained motion. If a resolution is passed in the form of a statute, it has a legally binding effect. But if it is passed as an expression of opinion, it has only a persuasive effect.
Types of Motions
Censure Motion –
This motion, seeking disapproval of the policy of the ruling Government, can be introduced in the Lok Sabha only by the opposition parties under the Rule 184 of the Rules and Procedures of the Lok Sabha. If a censure Motion is passed in the House, the Council of Ministers is bound to seek the confidence of the Lok Sabha as early as possible.
Further, if a Money Bill or the Vote of thanks to the President is defeated, this also amounts to the censure of the Government policy and the Government needs to seek the confidence of the Lok Sabha.
No confidence Motion-
This is introduced only in the Lok Sabha by the opposition party. When such a motion is admitted in the House, the Members of Parliament have the right to discuss any acts of commission or omission on the part of the Government on any policy matter for which substantial time is allotted. When admitted in the House, it takes precedence over all other pending business of the House. After the adoption of no confidence motion in the Lok Sabha, the Council of Ministers is obliged to resign.
Confidence Motion –
The provision of confidence motion is not bound under the Rules and Procedures of the Parliament but has come in vogue, under the Indian Parliamentary practice, with the emergence of the coalition Governments. The first incident of this was in February 1979, when the then Charan Singh Government was asked by the President to seek the confidence of the Lok Sabha. It is similar to the “No Confidence Motion” in all respects, except that it is introduced by the Government itself to prove that it commands the approval of the House. Thus, if a Confidence Motion is defeated, the Council of Ministers is obliged to resign. Examples of this are the fall of the V.P. Singh Government in 1990 and of the Dev Gowda Government in 1997.
Cut Motions –
These are a part of the budgetary process which seek to reduce the amount of grants. These are moved in the Lok Sabha only. They are classified into three categories:
Policy Cut – A policy Cut motion implies that, the mover disapproves of the policy underlying the demand. It’s form of expression is “that the amount of the demand be reduced by Rs.1.”
Economy Cut – This means reduction in the amount of the expenditure. It clearly states the amount to be reduced and it’s form of expression is “that the amount of the demand be reduced by Rs....( a specified amount)”.
Token Cut – It is introduced where the object of the motion is to ventilate a specific grievance within the sphere of the responsibility of the Government of India. It’s form of expression is “that the amount of the demand be reduced by Rs.100”.
The Legislature carries on its business according to the given agenda, but a matter of urgent public importance can be brought before the legislature and discussed through adjournment Motion by interrupting it’s regular business. An adjournment motion should be supported by not less than 50 members of the house for being accepted. If accepted, it results in holding the ongoing business of the house and discussing matters raised in the adjournment motion. The basic idea behind this motion is to give an opportunity to discuss a matter of urgent public importance. The matter should be of definite nature and should have factual basis. The discussion in the matter takes place at 1600 hours and continues for two and half hours. At the end of the discussion, voting takes place. Since voting exposes the government’s strength in the House, the ruling party tries not to allow the acceptance of the adjournment motion in the house.