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The Indian Succession Act, 1925

 Part I – Preliminary

Section 1. Short title

This Act may be called the Indian Succession Act, 1925.


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1. The Act has been extended to Berar by the Berar Laws Act, 1941 (4 of 1941) and to Manipur by the Union Territories (Laws) Amendment Act, 1956 (68 of 1956).


Extended to and brought into forco in Dadra and Nagar Haveli (w.e.f. 1.7.65) b Reg. 6 of 1963, s. 2 & Sch. I.


2. The words “in the Provinces of India” omitted by the A. O. 1950.

 


Section 2. Definitions

In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,–


(a) “administrator” means a person appointed by competent authority to administer the estate of a deceased person when there is no executor;


(b) “codicil” means an instrument made in relation to a will, and explaining, altering or adding to its dispositions, and shall be deemed to form part of the will;


1[(bb) “District Judge” means the Judge of a principal Civil Court of original jurisdiction;]


(c) “executor” means a person to whom the execution of the last will of a deceased person is, by the testator’s appointment, confided;


2[(cc) “India” means the territory of India excluding the State of Jammu and Kashmir;]


(d) “Indian Christian” means a native of India who is, or in good faith claims to be, of unmixed Asiatic descent and who professes any form of the Christian religion;


(e) “minor” means any person subject to the Indian Majority Act, 1875 (9 of 1875.), who has not attained his majority within the meaning of that Act, and any other person who has not completed the age of eighteen years; and “minority” means the status of any such person;


(f) “probate” means the copy of a will certified under the seal of a Court of competent jurisdiction with a grant of administration to the estate of the testator;


3[(g) “State” includes any division of India having a Court of the last resort;] and


(h) “will” means the legal declaration of the intention of a testator with respect to his property which he desires to be carried into effect after his death.


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1. Ins. by Act 18 of 1929, s. 2.


2. Ins. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch.


3. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch., for the original cl.

 


Section 3. Power of State Government to exempt any race, sect or tribe in the State from operation of Act

(1) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, either retrospectively from the sixteenth day of March, 1865, or prospectively, exempt from the operation of any of the following provisions of this Act, namely, sections 5 to 49, 58 to 191, 212, 213 and 215 to 369, the members of any race, sect or tribe in the State, or of any part of such race, sect or tribe, to whom the State Government considers it impossible or inexpedient to apply such provisions or any of them mentioned in the order.


(2) The State Government may, by a like notification, revoke any such order, but not so that the revocation shall have retrospective effect.


(3) Persons exempted under this section or exempted from the operation of any of the provisions of the Indian Succession Act, 1865 1 (10 of 1865.), under section 332 of that Act are in this Act referred to as “exempted persons”.


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1. Rep. by this Act.

 


Part II – Domicile

Section 4. Application of Part

This Part shall not apply if the deceased was a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina.

 


Section 5. Law regulating succession to deceased person’s immoveable and moveable property, respectively

(1) Succession to the immoveable property in 1[India] of a person deceased shall be regulated by the law of1[India], wherever such person may have had his domicile at the time of his death.


(2) Succession to the moveable property of a person deceased is regulated by the law of the country in which such person had his domicile at the time of his death.


Illustrations


(i) A, having his domicile in 2[India], dies in France, leaving moveable property in France, moveable property in England, and property, both moveable and immoveable, in 2[India]. The succession to the whole is regulated by the law of 2[India].


(ii) A, an Englishman, having his domicile in France, dies in 2[India], and leaves property, both moveable and immoveable, in 2[India]. The succession to the moveable property is regulated by the rules which govern, in France, the succession to the moveable property of an Englishman dying domiciled in France, and the succession to the immoveable property is regulated by the law of 2[India].


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1. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch., for “the States”.


2. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch., for “the States”.

 


Section 6. One domicile only affects succession to moveables

A person can have only one domicile for the purpose of the succession to his moveable property.

 


Section 7. Domicile of origin of person of legitimate birth

The domicile of origin of every person of legitimate birth is in the country in which at the time of his birth his father was domiciled; or, if he is a posthumous child, in the country in which his father was domiciled at the time of the father’s death.


Illustration


At the time of the birth of A, his father was domiciled in England. A’s domicile of origin is in England, whatever may be the country in which he was born.

 


Section 8. Domicile of origin of illegitimate child

The domicile of origin of an illegitimate child is in the country in which, at the time of his birth, his mother was domiciled.

 


Section 9. Continuance of domicile of origin

The domicile of origin prevails until a new domicile has been acquired.

 


Section 10. Acquisition of new domicile

A man acquires a new domicile by taking up his fixed habitation in a country which is not that of his domicile of origin.


Explanation.–A man is not to be deemed to have taken up his fixed habitation in 1[India] merely by reason of his residing there in 2[the civil, military, naval or air force service of Government], or in the exercise of any profession or calling.


Illustrations


(i) A, whose domicile of origin is in England, proceeds to 3[India], where he settles as a barrister or a merchant, intending to reside there during the remainder of his life. His domicile is now in 3[India].


(ii) A, whose domicile is in England, goes to Austria, and enters the Austrian service, intending to remain in that service. A has acquired a domicile in Austria.


(iii) A, whose domicile of origin is in France, comes to reside in 3[India] under an engagement with the Central Government for a certain number of years. It is his intention to return to France, at the end of that period. He does not acquire a domicile in 3[India].


(iv) A, whose domicile is in England, goes to reside in 3[India] for the purpose of winding up the affairs of a partnership which has been dissolved, and with the intention of returning to England as soon as that purpose is accomplished. He does not by such residence acquire a domicile in 3[India], however long the residence may last.


(v) A, having gone to reside in 3[India] in the circumstances mentioned in the last preceding illustration, afterwards alters his intention, and takes up his fixed habitation in 3[India]. A has acquired a domicile in3[India].


(vi) A, whose domicile is in the French Settlement of Chandernagore, is compelled by political events to take refuge in Calcutta, and resides in Calcutta for many years in the hope of such political changes as may enable him to return with safety to Chandernagore. He does not by such residence acquire a domicile in3[India].


(vii) A, having come to Calcutta in the circumstances stated in the last preceding illustration, continues to reside there after such political changes have occurred as would enable him to return with safety to Chandernagore, and he intends that his residence in Calcutta shall be permanent. A has acquired a domicile in 3[India].


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1. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch., for “the States”.


2. Subs. by the A. O. 1950, for “His Majesty’s civil, military, naval or air force service”.


3. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch., for “the States”.

 


Section 11. Special mode of acquiring domicile in India

Any person may acquire a domicile in 1[India] by making and depositing in some office in 1[India], appointed in this behalf by the State Government, a declaration in writing under his hand of his desire to acquire such domicile; provided that he has been resident in 1[India] for one year immediately preceding the time of his making such declaration.


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1. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch., for “the States”.

 


Section 12. Domicile not acquired by residence as representative of foreign Government, or as part of his family

A person who is appointed by the Government of one country to be its ambassador, consul or other representative in another country does not acquire a domicile in the latter country by reason only of residing there in pursuance of his appointment; nor does any other person acquire such domicile by reason only of residing with such first-mentioned person as part of his family, or as a servant.

 


Section 13. Continuance of new domicile

A new domicile continues until the former domicile has been resumed or another has been acquired.

 


Section 14. Minor’s domicile

The domicile of a minor follows the domicile of the parent from whom he derived his domicile of origin.


Exception.–The domicile of a minor does not change with that of his parent, if the minor is married, or holds any office or employment in the service of Government, or has set up, with the consent of the parent, in any distinct business.

 


Section 15. Domicile acquired by woman on marriage

By marriage a woman acquires the domicile of her husband, if she had not the same domicile before.

 


Section 16. Wife’s domicile during marriage

A wife’s domicile during her marriage follows the domicile of her husband.


Exception.–The wife’s domicile no longer follows that of her husband if they are separated by the sentence of a competent Court, or if the husband is undergoing a sentence of transportation.

 


Section 17. Minor’s acquisition of new domicile

Save as hereinbefore otherwise provided in this Part, person cannot, during minority, acquire a new domicile.

 


Section 18. Lunatic’s acquisition of new domicile

An insane person cannot acquire a new domicile in any other way than by his domicile following the domicile of another person.

 


Section 19. Succession to moveable property in India in absence of proof of domicile elsewhere

If a person dies leaving moveable property in 1[India], in the absence of proof of any domicile elsewhere, succession to the property is regulated by the law of 1[India].


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1. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch., for “the States”.

 


Part III – Marriage

Section 20. Interests and powers not acquired not lost by marriage

(1) No person shall, by marriage, acquire any interest in the property of the person whom he or she marries or become incapable of doing any act in respect of his or her own property which he or she could have done if unmarried.


(2) This section–


(a) shall not apply to any marriage contracted before the first day of January, 1866;


(b) shall not apply, and shall be deemed never to have applied, to any marriage, one or both of the parties to which professed at the time of the marriage the Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina religion.

 


Section 21. Effect of marriage between person domiciled and one not domiciled in India

If a person whose domicile is in 1[India] marries in 1[India] a person whose domicile is in 1[India], neither party acquires by the marriage any rights in respect of any property of the other party not comprised in a settlement made previous to the marriage, which he or she would not acquire thereby if both were domiciled in 1[India] at the time of the marriage.


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1. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch., for “the States”.

 


Section 22. Settlement of minor’s property in contemplation of marriage

(1) The property of a minor may be settled in contemplation of marriage, provided the settlement is made by the minor with the approbation of the minor’s father, or, if the father is dead or absent from 1[India], with the approbation of the High Court.


(2) Nothing in this section or in section 21 shall apply to any will made or intestacy occurring before the first day of January, 1866, or to intestate or testamentary succession to the property of any Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina.


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1. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch., for “the States”.

 


Part IV – Consanguinity

Section 23. Application of Part

Nothing in this Part shall apply to any will made or intestacy occurring before the first day of January, 1866, or to intestate or testamentary succession to the property of any Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh, Jaina or Parsi.

 


Section 24. Kindred or consanguinity

Kindred or consanguinity is the connection or relation of persons descended from the same stock or common ancestor.

 


Section 25. Lineal consanguinity

(1) Lineal consanguinity is that which subsists between two persons, one of whom is descended in a direct line from the other, as between a man and his father, grandfather and great-grandfather, and so upwards in the direct ascending line; or between a man and his son, grandson, great-grandson and so downwards in the direct descending line.


(2) Every generation constitutes a degree, either ascending or descending.


(3) A person’s father is related to him in the first degree, and so likewise is his son; his grandfather and grandson in the second degree; his great-grandfather and great-grandson in the third degree, and so on.

 


Section 26. Collateral consanguinity

(1) Collateral consanguinity is that which subsists between two persons who are descended from the same stock or ancestor, but neither of whom is descended in a direct line from the other.


(2) For the purpose of ascertaining in what degree of kindred any collateral relative stands to a person deceased, it is necessary to reckon upwards from the person deceased to the common stock and then downwards to the collateral relative, a degree being allowed for each person, both ascending and descending.

 


Section 27. Persons held for purpose of succession to be similarly related to deceased

For the purpose of succession, there is no distinction–


(a) between those who are related to a person deceased through his father, and those who are related to him through his mother; or


(b) between those who are related to a person deceased by the full blood, and those who are related to him by the half blood; or


(c) between those who were actually born in the lifetime of a person deceased and those who at the date of his death were only conceived in the womb, but who have been subsequently born alive.

 


Section 28. Mode of computing of degrees of kindred

Degrees of kindred are computed in the manner set forth in the table of kindred set out in Schedule I.


Illustrations


(i) The person whose relatives are to be reckoned, and his cousin-german, or first cousin, are, as shown in the table, related in the fourth degree; there being one degree of ascent to the father, and another to the common ancestor, the grandfather; and from him one of descent to the uncle, and another to the cousin-german, making in all four degrees.


(ii) A grandson of the brother and a son of the uncle, i.e., a great-nephew and a cousin-german, are in equal degree, being each four degrees removed.


(iii) A grandson of a cousin-german is in the same degree as the grandson of a great-uncle, for they are both in the sixth degree of kindred.

 


Part V – Intestate Succession

Chapter I – Preliminary

Section 29. Application of Part

(1) This Part shall not apply to any intestacy occurring before the first day of January, 1866, or to the property of any Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina.


(2) Save as provided in sub-section (1) or by any other law for the time being in force, the provisions of this Part shall constitute the law of 1[India] in all cases of intestacy.


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1. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch., for “the States”.

 


Section 30. As to what property deceased considered to have died intestate

A person is deemed to die intestate in respect of all property of which he has not made a testamentary disposition which is capable of taking effect.


Illustrations


(i) A has left no will. He has died intestate in respect of the whole of his property.


(ii) A has left a will, whereby he has appointed B his executor; but the will contains no other provision. A has died intestate in respect of the distribution of his property.


(iii) A has bequeathed his whole property for an illegal purpose. A has died intestate in respect of the distribution of his property.


(iv) A has bequeathed 1,000 rupees to B and 1,000 rupees to the eldest son of C, and has made no other bequest; and has died leaving the sum of 2,000 rupees and no other property. C died before A without having ever had a son. A has died intestate in respect of the distribution of 1,000 rupees.

 


Chapter II – Rules in cases of Intestates other than Parsis

Section 31. Chapter not to apply to Parsis

Nothing in this Chapter shall apply to Parsis.

 


Section 32. Devolution of such property

The property of an intestate devolves upon the wife or husband, or upon those who are of the kindred of the deceased, in the order and according to the rules hereinafter contained in this Chapter.


Explanation.–A widow is not entitled to the provision hereby made for her if, by a valid contract made before her marriage, she has been excluded from her distributive share of her husband’s estate.

 


Section 33. Where intestate has left widow and lineal descendants, or widow and kindred only, or widow and no kindred

Where the intestate has left a widow–


(a) if he has also left any lineal descendants, one-third of his property shall belong to his widow, and the remaining two-thirds shall go to his lineal descendants, according to the rules hereinafter contained;


(b) 1[save as provided by section 33A], if he has left no lineal descendant, but has left persons who are of kindred to him, one-half of his property shall belong to his widow, and the other half shall go to those who are kindred to him, in the order and according to the rules hereinafter contained;


(c) if he has left none who are of kindred to him, the whole of his property shall belong to his widow.


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1. Ins. by Act 40 of 1926, s. 2.

 


Section 33 A. Special provision where intestate has left widow and no lineal descendants

1[Special provision where intestate has left widow and no lineal descendants. (1) Where the intestate has left a widow but no lineal descendants and the nett value of his property does not exceed five thousand rupees, the whole of his property shall belong to the widow.


(2) Where the nett value of the property exceeds the sum of five thousand rupees, the widow shall be entitled to five thousand rupees thereof and shall have a charge upon the whole of such property for such sum of five thousand rupees, with interest thereon from the date of the death of the intestate at 4 per cent. per annum until payment.


(3) The provision for the widow made by this section shall be in addition and without prejudice to her interest and share in the residue of the estate of such intestate remaining after payment of the said sum of five thousand rupees with interest as aforesaid, and such residue shall be distributed in accordance with the provisions of section 33 as if it were the whole of such intestate’s property.


(4) The nett value of the property shall be ascertained by deducting from the gross value thereof all debts, and all funeral and administration expenses of the intestate, and all other lawful liabilities and charges to which the property shall be subject.


(5) This section shall not apply–


(a) to the property of–


(i) any Indian Christian,


(ii) any child or grandchild of any male person who is or was at the time of his death an Indian Christian, or


(iii) any person professing the Hindu, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina religion the succession to whose property is, under section 24 of the Special Marriage Act, 1872 (3 of 1872.), regulated by the provisions of this Act;


(b) unless the deceased dies intestate in respect of all his property.]


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1. Ins. by s. 3, ibid.

 


Section 34. Where intestate has left no widow, and where he has left no kindred

Where the intestate has left no widow, his property shall go to his lineal descendants or to those who are of kindred to him, not being lineal descendants, according to the rules hereinafter contained; and, if he has left none who are of kindred to him, it shall go to the Government.

 


Section 35. Rights of widower

A husband surviving his wife has the same rights in respect of her property, if she dies intestate, as a widow has in respect of her husband’s property, if he dies intestate.


Distribution where there are lineal descendants

 


Section 36. Rules of distribution

The rules for the distribution of the intestate’s property (after deducting the widow’s share, if he has left a widow) amongst his lineal descendants shall be those contained in sections 37 to 40.

 


Section 37. Where intestate has left child or children only

Where the intestate has left surviving him a child or children, but no more remote lineal descendant through a deceased child, the property shall belong to his surviving child, if there is only one, or shall be equally divided among all his surviving children.

 


Section 38. Where intestate has left no child, but grandchild or grandchildren

Where the intestate has not left surviving him any child but has left a grandchild or grandchildren and no more remote descendant through a deceased grandchild, the property shall belong to his surviving grandchild if there is one, or shall be equally divided among all his surviving grandchildren.


Illustrations


(i) A has three children, and no more, John, Mary and Henry. They all die before the father, John leaving two children, Mary three and Henry four. Afterwards A dies intestate, leaving those nine grandchildren and no descendant of any deceased grandchild. Each of his grandchildren will have one-ninth.


(ii) But if Henry has died, leaving no child, then the whole is equally divided between the intestate’s five grandchildren, the children of John and Mary.

 


Section 39. Where intestate has left only great-grandchildren or remoter lineal descendants

In like manner the property shall go to the surviving lineal descendants who are nearest in degree to the intestate, where they are all in the degree of great-grandchildren to him, or are all in a more remote degree.

 


Section 40. Where intestate leaves lineal descendants not all in same degree of kindred to him, and those through whom the more remote are descended are dead

(1) If the intestate has left lineal descendants who do not all stand in the same degree of kindred to him, and the persons through whom the more remote are descended from him are dead, the property shall be divided into such a number of equal shares as may correspond with the number of the lineal descendants of the intestate who either stood in the nearest degree of kindred to him at his decease, or, having been of the like degree of kindred to him, died before him, leaving lineal descendants who survived him.


(2) One of such shares shall be allotted to each of the lineal descendants who stood in the nearest degree of kindred to the intestate at his decease; and one of such shares shall be allotted in respect of each of such deceased lineal descendants; and the share allotted in respect of each of such deceased lineal descendants shall belong to his surviving child or children or more remote lineal descendants, as the case may be; such surviving child or children or more remote lineal descendants always taking the share which his or their parent or parents would have been entitled to respectively if such parent or parents had survived the intestate.


Illustrations


(i) A had three children, John, Mary and Henry; John died, leaving four children, and Mary died, leaving one, and Henry alone survived the father. On the death of A, intestate, one-third is allotted to Henry, one-third to John’s four children, and the remaining third to Mary’s one child.


(ii) A left no child, but left eight grandchildren, and two children of a deceased grandchild. The property is divided into nine parts, one of which is allotted to each grandchild, and the remaining one-ninth is equally divided between the two great-grandchildren.


(iii) A has three children, John, Mary and Henry; John dies leaving four children; and one of John’s children dies leaving two children. Mary dies leaving one child. A afterwards dies intestate. One-third of his property is allotted to Henry, one-third to Mary’s child, and one-third is divided into four parts, one of which is allotted to each of John’s three surviving children, and the remaining part is equally divided between John’s two grandchildren.


(iv) A has two children, and no more, John and Mary. John dies before his father, leaving his wife pregnant. Then A dies leaving Mary surviving him, and in due time a child of John is born. A’s property is to be equally divided between Mary and the posthumous child.


Distribution where there are no lineal descendants.


Section 41. Rules of distribution where intestate has left no lineal descendants

Where an intestate has left no lineal descendants, the rules for the distribution of his property (after deducting the widow’s share, if he has left a widow) shall be those contained in sections 42 to 48.

 


Section 42. Where intestate’s father living

If the intestate’s father is living, he shall succeed to the property.

 


Section 43. Where intestate’s father dead, but his mother, brothers and sisters living

If the intestate’s father is dead, but the intestate’s mother is living and there are also brothers or sisters of the intestate living, and there is no child living of any deceased brother or sister, the mother and each living brother or sister shall succeed to the property in equal shares.


Illustration


A dies intestate, survived by his mother and two brothers of the full blood, John and Henry, and a sister Mary, who is the daughter of his mother but not of his father. The mother takes one-fourth, each brother takes one-fourth and Mary, the sister of half blood, takes one-fourth.

 


Section 44. Where intestate’s father dead and his mother, a brother or sister, and children of any deceased brother or sister, living

If the intestate’s father is dead but the intestate’s mother is living, and if any brother or sister and the child or children of any brother or sister who may have died in the intestate’s lifetime are also living, then the mother and each living brother or sister, and the living child or children of each deceased brother or sister, shall be entitled to the property in equal shares, such children (if more than one) taking in equal shares only the shares which their respective parents would have taken if living at the intestate’s death.


Illustration


A, the intestate, leaves his mother, his brothers John and Henry, and also one child of a deceased sister, Mary, and two children of George, a deceased brother of the half blood who was the son of his father but not of his mother. The mother takes one-fifth, John and Henry each takes one-fifth, the child of Mary takes one-fifth, and the two children of George divide the remaining one-fifth equally between them.

 


Section 45. Where intestate’s father dead and his mother and children of any deceased brother or sister living

If the intestate’s father is dead, but the intestate’s mother is living, and the brothers and sisters are all dead, but all or any of them have left children who survived the intestate, the mother and the child or children of each deceased brother or sister shall be entitled to the property in equal shares, such children (if more than one) taking in equal shares only the shares which their respective parents would have taken if living at the intestate’s death.


Illustration


A, the intestate, leaves no brother or sister but leaves his mother and one child of a deceased sister, Mary, and two children of a deceased brother, George. The mother takes one-third, the child of Mary takes one-third, and the children of George divide the remaining one-third equally between them.

 


Section 46. Where intestate’s father dead, but his mother living and no brother, sister, nephew or niece

If the intestate’s father is dead, but the intestate’s mother is living, and there is neither brother, nor sister, nor child of any brother or sister of the intestate, the property shall belong to the mother.

 


Section 47. Where intestate has left neither lineal descendant, nor father, nor mother

Where the intestate has left neither lineal descendant, nor father, nor mother, the property shall be divided equally between his brothers and sisters and the child or children of such of them as may have died before him, such children (if more than one) taking in equal shares only the shares which their respective parents would have taken if living at the intestate’s death.

 


Section 48. Where intestate has left neither lineal descendant, nor parent, nor brother, nor sister

Where the intestate has left neither lineal descendant, nor parent, nor brother, nor sister, his property shall be divided equally among those of his relatives who are in the nearest degree of kindred to him.


Illustrations


(i) A, the intestate, has left a grandfather, and a grandmother and no other relative standing in the same or a nearer degree of kindred to him. They, being in the second degree, will be entitled to the property in equal shares, exclusive of any uncle or aunt of the intestate, uncles and aunts being only in the third degree.


(ii) A, the intestate, has left a great-grandfather, or a greatgrandmother, and uncles and aunts, and no other relative standing in the same or a nearer degree of kindred to him. All of these being in the third degree will take equal shares.


(iii) A, the intestate, left a great-grandfather, an uncle and a nephew, but no relative standing in a nearer degree of kindred to him. All of these being in the third degree will take equal shares.


(iv) Ten children of one brother or sister of the intestate, and one child of another brother or sister of the intestate, constitute the class of relatives of the nearest degree of kindred to him. They will each take one-eleventh of the property.

 


Section 49. Children’s advancements not brought into hotchpot

Where a distributive share in the property of a person who has died intestate is claimed by a child, or any descendant of a child, of such person, no money or other property which the intestate may, during his life, have paid, given or settled to, or for the advancement of, the child by whom or by whose descendant the claim is made shall be taken into account in estimating such distributive share.

 


Chapter III – Special Rules for Parsi Intestates

Section 50. General principles relating to intestate succession

1General principles relating to intestate succession. For the purpose of intestate succession among Parsis–


(a) there is no distinction between those who were actually born in the lifetime of a person deceased and those who at the date of his death were only conceived in the womb, but who have been subsequently born alive;


(b) a lineal descendant of an intestate who has died in the lifetime of the intestate without leaving a widow or widower or any lineal descendant or 2[a widow or widower of any lineal descendant] shall not be taken into account in determining the manner in which the property of which the intestate has died intestate shall be divided; and


(c) where a 2[widow or widower of any relative] of an intestate has married again in the lifetime of the intestate, 2[such widow or widower shall not be entitled to receive any share of the property of which the intestate has died intestate, and 2[such widow or widower] shall be deemed not to be existing at the intestate’s death.


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1. Subs. by Act 17 of 1939, s. 2, for the original ss. 50-56 (w.e.f. 12-6-1939).


2. Subs. by Act 51 of 1991, s. 2.

 


Section 51. Division of intestate’s property among widow, widower, children and Parents

1Division of intestate’s property among widow, widower, children and Parents. (1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), the property of which a Parsi dies intestate shall be divided,–


(a) where such Parsi dies leaving a widow or widower and children, among the widow or widower, and children so that the widow or widower and each child receive equal shares;


(b) where such Parsi dies leaving children, but no widow or widower, among the children in equal shares.


(2) Where a Parsi dies leaving one or both parents in addition to children or widow or widower and children, the property of which such Parsi dies intestate shall be so divided that the parent or each of the parents shall receive a share equal to half the share of each child.”].


——————–


1. Subs. by s. 3, ibid.

 


Section 52.

[Deleted]

 


Section 53. Division of share of predeceased child of intestate leaving lineal descendants

In all cases where a Parsi dies leaving any lineal descendant, if any child of such intestate has died in the lifetime of the intestate, the division of the share of the property of which the intestate has died intestate which such child would have taken if living at the intestate’s death shall be in accordance with the following rules, namely:–


(a) If such deceased child was a son, his widow and children shall take shares in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter as if he had died immediately after the intestate’s death:


Provided that where such deceased son has left a widow or a widow of a lineal descendant but no lineal descendant, the residue of his share after such distribution has been made shall be divided in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter as property of which the intestate has died intestate, and in making the division of such residue the said deceased son of the intestate shall not be taken into account.


(b) If such deceased child was a daughter, her share shall be divided equally among her children.


(c) If any child of such deceased child has also died during the lifetime of the intestate, the share which he or she would have taken if living at the intestate’s death, shall be divided in like manner in accordance with clause (a) or clause (b) as the case may be.


(d) Where a remoter lineal descendant of the intestate has died during the lifetime of the intestate, the provisions of clause (c) shall apply mutatis mutandis to the division of any share to which he or she would have been entitled if living at the intestate’s death by reason of the pre decease of all the intestate’s lineal descendants directly between him or her and the intestate.

 


Section 54. Division of property where intestate leaves no lineal descendant out leaves a widow or widower or a widow or widower of any lineal descendant

1[Division of property where intestate leaves no lineal descendant out leaves a widow or widower or a widow or widower of any lineal descendant. Where a Parsi dies without leaving any lineal descendant but leaving a widow or widower or a widow or widower of a lineal descendant, the property of which the intestate dies intestate shall be divided in accordance with the following rules, namely:–


(a) if the intestate leaves a widow or widower but no widow or widower of a lineal descendant, the widow or widower shall take half the said property;


(b) if the intestate leaves a widow or widower and also a widow or widower of any lineal descendant, his widow or her widower shall receive one-third of the said property and the widow or widower of any lineal descendant shall receive another one-third or if there is more than one such widow or widower of lineal descendants, the last mentioned one-third shall be divided equally among them;


(c) if the intestate leaves no widow or widower, but one widow or widower of a lineal descendant, such widow or widower of the lineal descendant shall receive one-third of the said property or, if the intestate leaves no widow or widower but more than one widow or widower of lineal descendants, two-thirds of the said property shall be divided among such widows or widower of the lineal descendants in equal shares;


(d) the residue after the division specified in clause (a) or clause (b) or clause (c) has been made shall be distributed among the relatives of the intestate in the order specified in Part I of Schedule II; and the next-of-kin standing first in Part I of that Schedule shall be preferred to those standing second, the second, the second to the third and so on in succession, provided that the property shall be so distributed that each male and female standing in the same degree of propinquity shall receive equal shares;


(e) if there are no relatives entitled to the residue under clause (d), the whole of the residue shall be distributed in proportion to the shares specified among the persons entitled to receive shares under this section.”]


——————–


1. Subs. by Act 51 of 1991, s. 4.

 


Section 55. Division of property where intestate leaves neither lineal descendants nor a widow or widower nor a widow of any lineal descendant

When a Parsi dies leaving neither lineal descendants nor a widow or widower nor 1[“a widow or widower of any lineal descendant”] his or her next-of-kin, in the order set forth in Part II of Schedule II, shall be entitled to succeed to the whole of the property of which he or she dies intestate. The next-of-kin standing first in Part II of that Schedule shall be preferred to those standing second, the second to the third, and so on in succession, provided that the property shall be so distributed that 1[“each male and female standing in the same degree of propinquity shall receive equal shares”].


——————–


1. Subs. by Act 51 of 1991, s. 5.


Section 56. Division of property where there is no relative entitled to succeed under the other provisions of this Chapter

Where there is no relative entitled to succeed under the other provisions of this Chapter to the property of which a Parsi has died intestate, the said property shall be divided equally among those of the intestate’s relatives who are in the nearest degree of kindred to him.]

 


Part VI – Testamentary Succession

Chapter I – Introductory

Section 57. Application of certain provisions of Part to a class of wills made by Hindus, etc.

1Application of certain provisions of Part to a class of wills made by Hindus, etc. The provisions of this Part which are set out in Schedule III shall, subject to the restrictions and modifications specified therein, apply–


(a) to all wills and codicils made by any Hindu, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina, on or after the first day of September, 1870, within the territories which at the said date were subject to the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal or within the local limits of the ordinary original civil jurisdiction of the High Courts of Judicature at Madras and Bombay; and


(b) to all such wills and codicils made outside those territories and limits so far as relates to immoveable property situate within those territories or limits; 2[and


(c) to all wills and codicils made by any Hindu, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina on or after the first day of January, 1927, to which those provisions are not applied by clauses (a) and (b):]


Provided that marriage shall not revoke any such will or codicil.


——————–


1. S. 57 was re-numbered as sub-section (1) of that section and subsection (2) added by Act 37 of 1926, s. 2; subsequently sub-section (2) was omitted and sub-section (1) was re-numbered as s. 57 by Act 18 of 1929, s. 3.


2. The word “and” and cl. (c) added by Act 18 of 1929, s. 3.

 


Section 58. General application of Part

(1) The provisions of this Part shall not apply to testamentary succession to the property of any Muhammadan nor, save as provided by section 57, to testamentary succession to the property of any Hindu, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina; nor shall they apply to any will made before the first day of January, 1866.

(2) Save as provided in sub-section (1) or by any other law for the time being in force the provisions of this Part shall constitute the law of 1[India] applicable to all cases of testamentary succession.


——————–


1. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch., for “the States”.

 


Chapter II – Wills and Codicils

Section 59. Person capable of making wills

Every person of sound mind not being a minor may dispose of his property by will.


Explanation 1.–A married woman may dispose by will of any property which she could alienate by her own act during her life.


Explanation 2.–Persons who are deaf or dumb or blind are not thereby incapacitated for making a will if they are able to know what they do by it.


Explanation 3.–A person who is ordinarily insane may make a will during interval in which he is of sound mind.


Explanation 4.–No person can make a will while he is in such a state of mind, whether arising from intoxication or from illness or from any other cause, that he does not know what he is doing.


Illustrations


(i) A can perceive what is going on in his immediate neighbourhood, and can answer familiar questions, but has not a competent understanding as to the nature of his property, or the persons who are of kindred to him, or in whose favour it would be proper that he should make his will. A cannot make a valid will.


(ii) A executes an instrument purporting to be his will, but he does not understand the nature of the instrument, nor the effect of its provisions. This instrument is not a valid will.


(iii) A, being very feeble and debilitated, but capable of exercising a judgment as to the proper mode of disposing of his property, makes a will. This is a valid will.

 


Section 60. Testamentary guardian

A father, whatever his age may be, may by will appoint a guardian or guardians for his child during minority.

 


Section 61. Will obtained by fraud, coercion or importunity

A will or any part of a will, the making of which has been caused by fraud or coercion, or by such importunity as takes away the free agency of the testator, is void.


Illustrations


(i) A, falsely and knowingly represents to the testator, that the testator’s only child is dead, or that he has done some undutiful act and thereby induces the testator to make a will in his, A’s favour; such will has been obtained by fraud, and is invalid.


(ii) A, by fraud and deception, prevails upon the testator to bequeath a legacy to him. The bequest is void.


(iii) A, being a prisoner by lawful authority, makes his will. The will is not invalid by reason of the imprisonment.


(iv) A threatens to shoot B, or to burn his house or to cause him to be arrested on a criminal charge, unless he makes a bequest in favour of C. B, in consequence, makes a bequest in favour of C. The bequest is void, the making of it having been caused by coercion.


(v) A, being of sufficient intellect, if undisturbed by the influence of others, to make a will yet being so much under the control of B that he is not a free agent, makes a will, dictated by B. It appears that he would not have executed the will but for fear of B. The will is invalid.


(vi) A, being in so feeble a state of health as to be unable to resist importunity, is pressed by B to make a will of a certain purport and does so merely to purchase peace and in submission to B. The will is invalid.


(vii) A being in such a state of health as to be capable of exercising his own judgment and volition, B uses urgent intercession and persuasion with him to induce him to make a will of a certain purport. A, in consequence of the intercession and persuasion, but in the free exercise of his judgment and volition makes his will in the manner recommended by B. The will is not rendered invalid by the intercession and persuasion of B.


(viii) A, with a view to obtaining a legacy from B, pays him attention and flatters him and thereby produces in him a capricious partiality to A. B, in consequence of such attention and flattery, makes his will, by which he leaves a legacy to A. The bequest is not rendered invalid by the attention and flattery of A.

 


Section 62. Will may be revoked or altered

A will is liable to be revoked or altered by the maker of it at any time when he is competent to dispose of his property by will.

 


Chapter III – Execution of unprivileged Wills

Section 63. Execution of unprivileged wills

Every testator, not being a soldier employed in an expedition or engaged in actual warfare, 1[or an airman so employed or engaged,] or a mariner at sea, shall execute his will according to the following rules:–


(a) The testator shall sign or shall affix his mark to the will, or it shall be signed by some other person in his presence and by his direction.


(b) The signature or mark of the testator, or the signature of the person signing for him, shall be so placed that it shall appear that it was intended thereby to give effect to the writing as a will.


(c) The will shall be attested by two or more witnesses, each of whom has seen the testator sign or affix his mark to the will or has seen some other person sign the will, in the presence and by the direction of the testator, or has received from the testator a personal acknowledgment of his signature or mark, or of the signature of such other person; and each of the witnesses shall sign the will in the presence of the testator, but it shall not be necessary that more than one witness be present at the same time, and no particular form of attestation shall be necessary.


——————–


1. Ins. by Act 10 of 1927, s. 2 and Sch. I.

 


Section 64. Incorporation of papers by reference

If a testator, in a will or codicil duly attested, refers to any other document then actually written as expressing any part of his intentions, such document shall be deemed to form a part of the will or codicil in which it is referred to.

 


Chapter IV – Privileged Wills

Section 65. Privileged wills

Any soldier being employed in an expedition or engaged in actual warfare, 1[or an airman so employed or engaged,] or any mariner being at sea, may, if he has completed the age of eighteen years, dispose of his property by a will made in the manner provided in section 66. Such wills are called privileged wills.


Illustrations

(i) A, a medical officer attached to a regiment is actually employed in an expedition. He is a soldier actually employed in an expedition, and can make a privileged will.


(ii) A is at sea in a merchant-ship, of which he is the purser. He is a mariner, and, being at sea, can make a privileged will.


(iii) A, a soldier serving in the field against insurgents, is a soldier engaged in actual warfare, and as such can make a privileged will.


(iv) A, a mariner of a ship, in the course of a voyage, is temporarily on shore while she is lying in harbour. He is, for the purposes of this section, a mariner at sea, and can make a privileged will.


(v) A, an admiral who commands a naval force, but who lives on shore, and only occasionally goes on board his ship, is not considered as at sea, and cannot make a privileged will.


(vi) A, a mariner serving on a military expedition, but not being at sea, is considered as a soldier, and can make a privileged will.


——————–


1. Ins. by Act 10 of 1927, s. 2 and Sch. I.

 


Section 66. Mode of making, and rules for executing, privileged wills

(1) Privileged wills may be in writing, or may be made by word of mouth.


(2) The execution of privileged wills shall be governed by the following rules:–


(a) The will may be written wholly by the testator, with his own hand. In such case it need not be signed or attested.


(b) It may be written wholly or in part by another person, and signed by the testator. In such case it need not be attested.


(c) If the instrument purporting to be a will is written wholly or in part by another person and is not signed by the testator, it shall be deemed to be his will, if it is shown that it was written by the testator’s directions or that he recognised it as his will.


(d) If it appears on the face of the instrument that the execution of it in the manner intended by the testator was not completed, the instrument shall not, by reason of that circumstance, be invalid, provided that his non-execution of it can be reasonably ascribed to some cause other than the abandonment of the testamentary intentions expressed in the instrument.


(e) If the soldier, 1[airman] or mariner has written instructions for the preparation of his will, but has died before it could be prepared and executed, such instructions shall be considered to constitute his will.


(f) If the soldier, 1[airman] or mariner has, in the presence of two witnesses, given verbal instructions for the preparation of his will, and they have been reduced into writing in his lifetime, but he has died before the instrument could be prepared and executed, such instructions shall be considered to constitute his will, although they may not have been reduced into writing in his presence, nor read over to him.


(g) The soldier, 1[airman] or mariner may make a will by word of mouth by declaring his intentions before two witnesses present at the same time.


(h) A will made by word of mouth shall be null at the expiration of one month after the testator, being still alive, has ceased to be entitled to make a privileged will.


——————–


1. Ins. by Act 10 of 1927, s. 2 and Sch. I.

 


Chapter V – Attestation, Revocation, Alteration and Revival of Wills

Section 67. Effect of gift to attesting witness

A will shall not be deemed to be insufficiently attested by reason of any benefit thereby given either by way of bequest or by way of appointment to any person attesting it, or to his or her wife or husband; but the bequest or appointment shall be void so far as concerns the person so attesting, or the wife or husband of such person, or any person claiming under either of them.


Explanation.–A legatee under a will does not lose his legacy by attesting a codicil which confirms the will.

 


Section 68. Witness not disqualified by interest or by being executor

No person, by reason of interest in, or of his being an executor of, a will, shall be disqualified as a witness to prove the execution of the will or to prove the validity or invalidity thereof.

 


Section 69. Revocation of will by testator’s marriage

Every will shall be revoked by the marriage of the maker, except a will made in exercise of a power of appointment, when the property over which the power of appointment is exercised would not, in default of such appointment, pass to his or her executor or administrator, or to the person entitled in case of intestacy.

Explanation.–Where a man is invested with power to determine the disposition of property of which he is not the owner, he is said to have power to appoint such property.


Section 70. Revocation of unprivileged will or codicil

No unprivileged will or codicil, nor any part thereof, shall be revoked otherwise than by marriage, or by another will or codicil, or by some writing declaring an intention to revoke the same and executed in the manner in which an unprivileged will is hereinbefore required to be executed, or by the burning, tearing, or otherwise destroying the same by the testator or by some person in his presence and by his direction with the intention of revoking the same.


Illustrations


(i) A has made an unprivileged will. Afterwards, A makes another unprivileged will which purports to revoke the first. This is a revocation.


(ii) A has made an unprivileged will. Afterwards, A, being entitled to make a privileged will, makes a privileged will, which purports to revoke his unprivileged will. This is a revocation.

 


Section 71. Effect of obliteration, interlineation or alteration in unprivileged will

No obliteration, interlineation or other alteration made in any unprivileged will after the execution thereof shall have any effect, except so far as the words or meaning of the will have been thereby rendered illegible or undiscernible, unless such alteration has been executed in like manner as hereinbefore is required for the execution of the will:


Provided that the will, as so altered, shall be deemed to be duly executed if the signature of the testator and the subscription of the witnesses is made in the margin or on some other part of the will opposite or near to such alteration, or at the foot or end of or opposite to a memorandum referring to such alteration, and written at the end or some other part of the will.

 


Section 72. Revocation of privileged will or codicil

A privileged will or codicil may be revoked by the testator by an unprivileged will or codicil, or by any act expressing an intention to revoke it and accompanied by such formalities as would be sufficient to give validity to a privileged will, or by the burning, tearing or otherwise destroying the same by the testator, or by some person in his presence and by his direction, with the intention of revoking the same.


Explanation.–In order to the revocation of a privileged will or codicil by an act accompanied by such formalities as would be sufficient to give validity to a privileged will, it is not necessary that the testator should at the time of doing that act be in a situation which entitles him to make a privileged will.

 


Section 73. Revival of unprivileged will

1) No unprivileged will or codicil, nor any part thereof, which has been revoked in any manner, shall be revived otherwise than by the re-execution thereof, or by a codicil executed in manner hereinbefore required, and showing an intention to revive the same.


(2) When any will or codicil, which has been partly revoked and afterwards wholly revoked, is revived, such revival shall not extend to so much thereof as has been revoked before the revocation of the whole thereof, unless an intention to the contrary is shown by the will or codicil.

 


Chapter VI – Construction of Wills

Section 74. Wording of will

It is not necessary that any technical words or terms of art be used in a will, but only that the wording be such that the intentions of the testator can be known therefrom.

 


Section 75. Inquiries to determine questions as to object or subject of will

For the purpose of determining questions as to what person or what property is denoted by any words used in a will, a Court shall inquire into every material fact relating to the persons who claim to be interested under such will, the property which is claimed as the subject of disposition, the circumstances of the testator and of his family, and into every fact a knowledge of which may conduce to the right application of the words which the testator has used.


Illustrations


(i) A, by his will, bequeaths 1,000 rupees to his eldest son or to his youngest grandchild, or to his cousin, Mary. A Court may make inquiry in order to ascertain to what person the description in the will applies.


(ii) A, by his will, leaves to B “my estate called Black Acre”. It may be necessary to take evidence in order to ascertain what is the subject-matter of the bequest; that is to say, what estate of the testator’s is called Black Acre.


(iii) A, by his will, leaves to B “the estate which I purchased of C”. It may be necessary to take evidence in order to ascertain what estate the testator purchased of C.

 


Section 76. Misnomer or misdescription of object

(1) Where the words used in a will to designate or describe a legatee or a class of legatees sufficiently show what is meant, an error in the name or description shall not prevent the legacy from taking effect.


(2) A mistake in the name of a legatee may be corrected by a description of him, and a mistake in the description of a legatee may be corrected by the name.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths a legacy to “Thomas, the second son of my brother John”. The testator has an only brother named John, who has no son named Thomas, but has a second son whose name is William. William will have the legacy.


(ii) A bequeaths a legacy “to Thomas, the second son of my brother John”. The testator has an only brother, named John, whose first son is named Thomas and whose second son is named William. Thomas will have the legacy.


(iii) The testator bequeaths his property “to A and B, the legitimate children of C”. C has no legitimate child, but has two illegitimate children, A and B. The bequest to A and B takes effect, although they are illegitimate.


(iv) The testator gives his residuary estate to be divided among “my seven children” and, proceeding to enumerate them, mentions six names only. This omission will not prevent the seventh child from taking a share with the others.


(v) The testator, having six grandchildren, makes a bequest to “my six grandchildren” and, proceeding to mention them by their Christian names, mentions one twice over omitting another altogether.


The one whose name is not mentioned will take a share with the others.


(vi) The testator bequeaths “1,000 rupees to each of the three children of A”. At the date of the will A has four children. Each of these four children will, if he survives the testator, receive a legacy of 1,000 rupees.

 


Section 77. When words may be supplied

Where any word material to the full expression of the meaning has been omitted, it may be supplied by the context.


Illustration


The testator gives a legacy of “five hundred” to his daughter A and a legacy of “five hundred rupees” to his daughter B. A will take a legacy of five hundred rupees.

 


Section 78. Rejection of erroneous particulars in description of subject

If the thing which the testator intended to bequeath can be sufficiently identified from the description of it given in the will, but some parts of the description do not apply, such parts of the description shall be rejected as erroneous, and the bequest shall take effect.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths to B “my marsh-lands lying in L and in the occupation of X”. The testator had marsh-lands lying in L but had no marsh-lands in the occupation of X. The words “in the occupation of X” shall be rejected as erroneous, and the marsh-lands of the testator lying in L will pass by the bequest.


(ii) The testator bequeaths to A “my zamindari of Rampur”. He had an estate at Rampur but it was a taluq and not a zamindari. The taluq passes by this bequest.

 


Section 79. When part of description may not be rejected as erroneous

If a will mentions several circumstances as descriptive of the thing which the testator intends to bequeath, and there is any property of his in respect of which all those circumstances exist, the bequest shall be considered as limited to such property, and it shall not be lawful to reject any part of the description as erroneous, because the testator had other property to which such part of the description does not apply.


Explanation.–In judging whether a case falls within the meaning of this section, any words which would be liable to rejection under section 78 shall be deemed to have been struck out of the will.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths to B “my marsh-lands lying in L and in the occupation of X”. The testator had marsh-lands lying in L, some of which were in the occupation of X, and some not in the occupation of X. The bequest will be considered as limited to such of the testator’s marsh-lands lying in L as were in the occupation of X.


(ii) A bequeaths to B “my marsh-lands lying in L and in the occupation of X, comprising 1,000 bighas of lands”. The testator had marsh-lands lying in L some of which were in the occupation of X and some not in the occupation of X. The measurement is wholly inapplicable to the marsh-lands of either class, or to the whole taken together. The measurement will be considered as struck out of the will, and such of the testator’s marsh-lands lying in L as were in the occupation of X shall alone pass by the bequest.

 


Section 80. Extrinsic evidence admissible in cases of patent ambiguity

Where the words of a will are unambiguous, but it is found by extrinsic evidence that they admit of applications, one only of which can have been intended by the testator, extrinsic evidence may be taken to show which of these applications was intended.


Illustrations


(i) A man, having two cousins of the name of Mary, bequeaths a sum of money to “my cousin Mary”. It appears that there are two persons, each answering the description in the will. That description, therefore, admits of two applications, only one of which can have been intended by the testator. Evidence is admissible to show which of the two applications was intended.


(ii) A, by his will, leaves to B “my estate called Sultanpur Khurd”. It turns out that he had two estates called Sultanpur Khurd. Evidence is admissible to show which estate was intended.

 


Section 81. Extrinsic evidence inadmissible in case of patent ambiguity or deficiency

Where there is an ambiguity or deficiency on the face of a will, no extrinsic evidence as to the intentions of the testator shall be admitted.


Illustrations


(i) A man has an aunt, Caroline, and a cousin, Mary, and has no aunt of the name of Mary. By his will he bequeaths 1,000 rupees to “my aunt, Caroline” and 1,000 rupees to “my cousin, Mary” and afterwards bequeaths 2,000 rupees to “my before-mentioned aunt, Mary”. There is no person to whom the description given in the will can apply, and evidence is not admissible to show who was meant by “my beforementioned aunt, Mary”. The bequest is therefore void for uncertainty under section 89.


(ii) A bequeaths 1,000 rupees to leaving a blank for the name of the legatee. Evidence is not admissible to show what name the testator intended to insert.


(iii) A bequeaths to B rupees, or “my estate of”. Evidence is not admissible to show what sum or what estate the testator intended to insert.

 


Section 82. Meaning of clause to be collected from entire will

The meaning of any clause in a will is to be collected from the entire instrument, and all its parts are to be construed with reference to each other.


Illustrations


(i) The testator gives to B a specific fund or property at the death of A, and by a subsequent clause gives the whole of his property to A. The effect of the several clauses taken together is to vest the specific fund or property in A for life, and after his decease in B; it appearing from the bequest to B that the testator meant to use in a restricted sense the words in which he describes what he gives to A.


(ii) Where a testator having an estate, one part of which is called Black Acre, bequeaths the whole of his estate to A, and in another part of his will bequeaths Black Acre to B, the latter bequest is to be read as an exception out of the first as if he had said “I give Black Acre to B, and all the rest of my estate to A”.


Section 83. When words may be understood in restricted sense, and when in sense wider than usual

General words may be understood in a restricted sense where it may be collected from the will that the testator meant to use them in a restricted sense; and words may be understood in a wider sense than that which they usually bear, where it may be collected from the other words of the will that the testator meant to use them in such wider sense.


Illustrations


(i) A testator gives to A “my farm in the occupation of B,” and to C “all my marsh-lands in L”. Part of the farm in the occupation of B consists of marsh-lands in L, and the testator also has other marshlands in L. The general words, “all my marsh-lands in L,” are restricted by the gift to A. A takes the whole of the farm in the occupation of B, including that portion of the farm which consists of marsh-lands in L.


(ii) The testator (a sailor on ship-board) bequeathed to his mother his gold ring, buttons and chest of clothes, and to his friend, A (a shipmate), his red box, clasp-knife and all things not before bequeathed. The testator’s share in a house does not pass to A under this bequest.


(iii) A, by his will, bequeathed to B all his household furniture, plate, linen, china, books, pictures and all other goods of whatever kind; and afterwards bequeathed to B a specified part of his property. Under the first bequest B is entitled only to such articles of the testator’s as are of the same nature with the articles therein enumerated.

 


Section 84. Which of two possible constructions preferred

Where a clause is susceptible of two meanings according to one of which it has some effect, and according to the other of which it can have none, the former shall be preferred.

 


Section 85. No part rejected, if can be it reasonably construed

No part of a will shall be rejected as destitute of meaning if it is possible to put a reasonable construction upon it.

 


Section 86. Interpretation of words repeated in different parts of will

If the same words occur in different parts of the same will, they shall be taken to have been used everywhere in the same sense, unless a contrary intention appears.

 


Section 87. Testator’s intention to be effectuated as far as possible

The intention of the testator shall not be set aside because it cannot take effect to the full extent, but effect is to be given to it as far as possible.


Illustration


The testator by a will made on his death-bed bequeathed all his property to C. D. for life and after his decease to a certain hospital. The intention of the testator cannot take effect to its full extent because the gift to the hospital is void under section 118, but it will take effect so far as regards the gift to C. D.

 


Section 88. The last of two inconsistent clauses prevails

Where two clauses of gifts in a will are irreconcileable, so that they cannot possibly stand together, the last shall prevail.


Illustrations


(i) The testator by the first clause of his will leaves his estate of Ramnagar “to A,” and by the last clause of his will leaves it “to B and not to A”. B will have it.


(ii) If a man, at the commencement of his will gives his house to A, and at the close of it directs that his house shall be sold and the proceeds invested for the benefit of B, the latter disposition will prevail.

 


Section 89. Will or bequest void for uncertainty

A will or bequest not expressive of any definite intention is void for uncertainty.


Illustration


If a testator says “I bequeath goods to A,” or “I bequeath to A,” or “I leave to A all the goods mentioned in the Schedule” and no Schedule is found, or “I bequeath “money,’ ‘wheat,’ ‘oil,'” or the like, without saying how much, this is void.

 


Section 90. Words describing subject refer to property answering description at testator’s death

The description contained in a will will of property, the subject of gift, shall, unless a contrary intention appears by the will, be deemed to refer to and comprise the property answering that description at the death of the testator.

 


Section 91. Power of appointment executed by general bequest

Unless a contrary intention appears by the will, a bequest of the estate of the testator shall be construed to include any property which he may have power to appoint by will to any object he may think proper, and shall operate as an execution of such power; and a bequest of property described in a general manner shall be construed to include any property to which such description may extend, which he may have power to appoint by will to any object he may think proper, and shall operate as an execution of such power.

 


Section 92. Implied gift to objects of power in default of appointment

Where property is bequeathed to or for the benefit of certain objects as a specified person may appoint or for the benefit of certain objects in such proportions as a specified person may appoint, and the will does not provide for the event of no appointment being made; if the power given by the will is not exercised, the property belongs to all the objects of the power in equal shares.


Illustration


A, by his will, bequeaths a fund to his wife, for her life, and directs that at her death it shall be divided among his children in such proportions as she shall appoint. The widow dies without having made any appointment. The fund will be divided equally among the children.

 


Section 93. Bequest to “heirs,” etc., of particular person without qualifying terms

Where a bequest is made to the “heirs” or “right heirs” or “relations” or “nearest relations” or “family” cr “kindred” or “nearest of kin” or “next-of-kin” of a particular person without any qualifying terms, and the class so designated forms the direct and independent object of the bequest, the property bequeathed shall be distributed as if it had belonged to such person and he had died intestate in respect of it, leaving assets for the payment of his debts independently of such property.


Illustrations


(i) A leaves his property “to my own nearest relations”. The property goes to those who would be entitled to it if A had died intestate, leaving assets for the payment of his debts independently of such property.


(ii) A bequeaths 10,000 rupees “to B for his life, and, after the death of B, to my own right heirs”. The legacy after B’s death belongs to those who would be entitled to it if it had formed part of A’s unbequeathed property.


(iii) A leaves his property to B; but if B dies before him, to B’s next-of-kin; B dies before A; the property devolves as if it had belonged to B, and he had died intestate, leaving assets for the payment of his debts independently of such property.


(iv) A leaves 10,000 rupees “to B for his life, and after his decease to the heirs of C”. The legacy goes as if it had belonged to C, and he had died intestate, leaving assets for the payment of his debts independently of the legacy.

 


Section 94. Bequest to “representatives,” etc., of particular person

Where a bequest is made to the “representatives” or “legal representatives” or “personal representatives” or “executors or administrators” of a particular person, and the class so designated forms the direct and independent object of the bequest, the property bequeathed shall be distributed as if it had belonged to such person and he had died intestate in respect of it.


Illustration


A bequest is made to the “legal representatives” of A. A has died intestate and insolvent. B is his administrator. B is entitled to receive the legacy, and will apply it in the first place to the discharge of such part of A’s debts as may remain unpaid: if there be any surplus B will pay it to those persons who at A’s death would have been entitled to receive any property of A’s which might remain after payment of his debts, or to the representatives of such persons.

 


Section 95. Bequest without words of limitation

Where property is bequeathed to any person, he is entitled to the whole interest of the testator therein, unless it appears from the will that only a restricted interest was intended for him.

 


Section 96. Bequest in alternative

Where a property is bequeathed to a person with a bequest in the alternative to another person or to a class of persons, then, if a contrary intention does not appear by the will, the legatee first named shall be entitled to the legacy if he is alive at the time when it takes effect; but if he is then dead, the person or class of persons named in the second branch of the alternative shall take the legacy.


Illustrations


(i) A bequest is made to A or to B. A survives the testator. B takes nothing.


(ii) A bequest is made to A or to B. A dies after the date of the will, and before the testator. The legacy goes to B.


(iii) A bequest is made to A or to B. A is dead at the date of the will. The legacy goes to B.


(iv) Property is bequeathed to A or his heirs. A survives the testator. A takes the property absolutely.


(v) Property is bequeathed to A or his nearest of kin. A dies in the lifetime of the testator. Upon the death of the testator, the bequest to A’s nearest of kin takes effect.


(vi) Property is bequeathed to A for life, and after his death to B or his heirs. A and B survive the testator. B dies in A’s lifetime. Upon A’s death the bequest to the heirs of B takes effect.


(vii) Property is bequeathed to A for life, and after his death to B or his heirs. B dies in the testator’s lifetime. A survives the testator. Upon A’s death the bequest to the heirs of B takes effect.

 


Section 97. Effect of words describing a class added to bequest to person

Where property is bequeathed to a person, and words are added which describe a class of persons but do not denote them as direct objects of a distinct and independent gift, such person is entitled to the whole interest of the testator therein, unless a contrary intention appears by the will.


Illustrations


(i) A bequest is made–

to A and his children,

to A and his children by his present wife,

to A and his heirs,

to A and the heirs of his body,

to A and the heirs male of his body,

to A and the heirs female of his body,

to A and his issue,


to A and his family,

to A and his descendants,

to A and his representatives,

tp A and his personal representatives,

to A, his executors and administrators.


In each of these cases, A takes the whole interest which the testator had in the property.


(ii) A bequest is made to A and his brothers. A and his brothers are jointly entitled to the legacy.


(iii) A bequest is made to A for life and after his death to his issue. At the death of A the property belongs in equal shares to all persons who then answer the description of issue of A.

 


Section 98. Bequest to class of persons under general description only

Where a bequest is made to a class of persons under a general description only, no one to whom the words of the description are not in their ordinary sense applicable shall take the legacy.

 


Section 99. Construction of terms.-In a will

(a) the word “children” applies only to lineal descendants in the first degree of the person whose “children” are spoken of;


(b) the word “grandchildren” applies only to lineal descendants in the second degree of the person whose “grandchildren” are spoken of;


(c) the words “nephews” and “nieces” apply only to children of brothers or sisters;


(d) the words “cousins”, or “first cousins”, or “cousins german,” apply only to children of brothers or of sisters of the father or mother of the person whose “cousins,” or “first cousins,” or “cousins-german,” are spoken of;


(e) the words “first cousins once removed” apply only to children of cousins-german, or to cousins-german of a parent of the person whose “first cousins once removed” are spoken of;


(f) the words “second cousins” apply only to grandchildren of brothers or of sisters of the grandfather or grandmother of the person whose “second cousins” are spoken of;


(g) the words “issue” and “descendants” apply to all lineal descendants whatever of the person whose “issue” or “descendants” are spoken of;


(h) words expressive of collateral relationship apply alike to relatives of full and of half blood; and


(i) all words expressive of relationship apply to a child in the womb who is afterwards born alive.

 


Section 100. Words expressing relationship denote only legitimate relatives or failing such relatives reputed legitimate

In the absence of any intimation to the contrary in a will, the word “child,” the word “son,” the word “daughter,” or any word which expresses relationship, is to be understood as denoting only a legitimate relative, or, where there is no such legitimate relative, a person who has acquired, at the date of the will, the reputation of being such relative.


Illustrations


(i) A having three children, B, C and D, of whom B and C are legitimate and D is illegitimate, leaves his property to be equally divided among “my children”. The property belongs to B and C in equal shares, to the exclusion of D.


(ii) A, having a niece of illegitimate birth, who has acquired the reputation of being his niece, and having no legitimate niece, bequeaths a sum of money to his niece. The illegitimate niece is entitled to the legacy.


(iii) A, having in his will enumerated his children, and named as one of them B, who is illegitimate, leaves a legacy to “my said children”. B will take a share in the legacy along with the legitimate children.


(iv) A leaves a legacy to “the children of B”. B is dead and has left none but illegitimate children. All those who had at the date of the will acquired the reputation of being the children of B are objects of the gift.


(v) A bequeaths a legacy to “the children of B”. B never had any legitimate child. C and D had, at the date of the will, acquired the reputation of being children of B. After the date of the will and before the death of the testator, E and F were born, and acquired the reputation of being children of B. Only C and D are objects of the bequest.


(vi) A makes a bequest in favour of his child by a certain woman, not his wife. B had acquired at the date of the will the reputation of being the child of A by the woman designated. B takes the legacy.


(vii) A makes a bequest in favour of his child to be born of a woman who never becomes his wife. The bequest is void.


(viii) A makes a bequest in favour of the child of which a certain woman, not married to him, is pregnant. The bequest is void.

 


Section 101. Rules of construction where will purports to make two bequests to same person

Where a will purports to make two bequests to the same person, and a question arises whether the testator intended to make the second bequest instead of or in addition to the first; if there is nothing in the will to show what he intended, the following rules shall have effect in determining the construction to be put upon the will:–


(a) If the same specific thing is bequeathed twice to the same legatee in the same will or in the will and again in the codicil, he is entitled to receive that specific thing only.


(b) Where one and the same will or one and the same codicil purports to make, in two places, a bequest to the same person of the same quantity or amount of anything, he shall be entitled to one such legacy only.


(c) Where two legacies of unequal amount are given to the same person in the same will, or in the same codicil, the legatee is entitled to both.


(d) Where two legacies, whether equal or unequal in amount, are given to the same legatee, one by a will and the other by a codicil, or each by a different codicil, the legatee is entitled to both legacies.


Explanation.–In clauses (a) to (d) of this section, the word “will” does not include a codicil.


Illustrations


(i) A, having ten shares, and no more, in the Imperial Bank of India, made his will, which contains near its commencement the words “I bequeath my ten shares in the Imperial Bank of India to B”. After other bequests, the will concludes with the words “and I bequeath my ten shares in the Imperial Bank of India to B”. B is entitled simply to receive A’s ten shares in the Imperial Bank of India.


(ii) A, having one diamond ring, which was given him by B, bequeaths to C the diamond ring which was given by B. A afterwards made a codicil to his will, and thereby, after giving other leagacies, he bequeathed to C the diamond ring which was given him by B. C can claim nothing except the diamond ring which was given to A by B.


(iii) A, by his will, bequeaths to B the sum of 5,000 rupees and afterwards in the same will repeats the bequest in the same words. B is entitled to one legacy of 5,000 rupees only.


(iv) A, by his will, bequeaths to B the sum of 5,000 rupees and afterwards in the same will bequeaths to B the sum of 6,000 rupees. B is entitled to receive 11,000 rupees.


(v) A, by his will, bequeaths to B 5,000 rupees and by a codicil to the will he bequeaths to him 5,000 rupees. B is entitled to receive 10,000 rupees.


(vi) A, by one codicil to his will, bequeaths to B 5,000 rupees and by another codicil bequeaths to him, 6,000 rupees. B is entitled to receive 11,000 rupees.


(vii) A, by his will, bequeaths “500 rupees to B because she was my nurse”, and in another part of the will bequeaths 500 rupees to B “because she went to England with my children”. B is entitled to receive 1,000 rupees.


(viii) A, by his will, bequeaths to B the sum of 5,000 rupees and also, in another part of the will, an annuity of 400 rupees. B is entitled to both legacies.


(ix) A, by his will, bequeaths to B the sum of 5,000 rupees and also bequeaths to him the sum of 5,000 rupees if he shall attain the age of 18. B is entitled absolutely to one sum of 5,000 rupees, and takes a contingent interest in another sum of 5,000 rupees.

 


Section 102. Constitution of residuary legatee

A residuary legatee may be constituted by any words that show an intention on the part of the testator that the person designated shall take the surplus or residue of his property.


Illustrations


(i) A makes her will, consisting of several testamentary papers, in one of which are contained the following words :–“I think there will be something left, after all funeral expenses, etc., to give to B, now at school, towards equipping him to any profession he may hereafter be appointed to.” B is constituted residuary legatee.


(ii) A makes his will, with the following passage at the end of it:–“I believe there will be found sufficient in my banker’s hands to defray and discharge my debts, which I hereby, desire B to do, and keep the residue for her own use and pleasure.” B is constituted the residuary legatee.


(iii) A bequeaths all his property to B, except certain stocks and funds, which he bequeaths to C. B is the residuary legatee.

 


Section 103. Property to which residuary legatee entitled

Under a residuary bequest, the legatee is entitled to all property belonging to the testator at the time of his death, of which he has not made any other testamentary disposition which is capable of taking effect.


Illustration


A by his will bequeaths certain legacies, of which one is void under section 118, and another lapses by the death of the legatee. He bequeaths the residue of his property to B. After the date of his will A purchases a zamindari, which belongs to him at the time of his death. B is entitled to the two legacies and the zamindari as part of the residue.

 


Section 104. Time of vesting legacy in general terms

If a legacy is given in general terms, without specifying the time when it is to be paid, the legatee has a vested interest in it from the day of the death of the testator, and, if he dies without having received it, it shall pass to his representatives.

 


Section 105. In what case legacy lapses

(1) If the legatee does not survive the testator, the legacy cannot take effect, but shall lapse and form part of the residue of the testator’s property, unless it appears by the will that the testator intended that it should go to some other person.


(2) In order to entitle the representatives of the legatee to receive the legacy, it must be proved that he survived the testator.


Illustrations


(i) The testator bequeaths to B “500 rupees which B owes me”. B dies before the testator; the legacy lapses.


(ii) A bequest is made to A and his children. A dies before the testator, or happens to be dead when the will is made. The legacy to A and his children lapses.


(iii) A legacy is given to A, and, in case of his dying before the testator, to B. A dies before the testator. The legacy goes to B.


(iv) A sum of money is bequeathed to A for life, and after his death to B. A dies in the lifetime of the testator; B survives the testator. The bequest to B takes effect.


(v) A sum of money is bequeathed to A on his completing his eighteenth year, and in case he should die before he completes his eighteenth year, to B. A completes his eighteenth year, and dies in the lifetime of the testator. The legacy to A lapses, and the bequest to B does not take effect.


(vi) The testator and the legatee perished in the same shipwreck. There is no evidence to show which died first. The legacy lapses.

 


Section 106. Legacy does not lapse if one of two joint legatees die before testator

If a legacy is given to two persons jointly, and one of them dies before the testator, the other legatee takes the whole.


Illustration


The legacy is simply to A and B. A dies before the testator. B takes the legacy.

 


Section 107. Effect of words showing testator’s intention to give distinct shares

If a legacy is given to legatees in words which show that the testator intended to give them distinct shares of it, then, if any legatee dies before the testator, so much of the legacy as was intended for him shall fall into the residue of the testator’s property.


Illustration


A sum of money is bequeathed to A, B and C, to be equally divided among them. A dies before the testator. B and C will only take so much as they would have had if A had survived the testator.

 


Section 108. When lapsed share goes as undisposed of

Where a share which lapses is a part of the general residue bequeathed by the will, that share shall go as undisposed of.


Illustration


The testator bequeaths the residue of his estate to A, B and C, to be equally divided between them. A dies before the testator. His one-third of the residue goes as undisposed of.

 


Section 109. When bequest to testator’s child or lineal descendant does not lapse on his death in testator’s lifetime

Where a bequest has been made to any child or other lineal descendant of the testator, and the legatee dies in the lifetime of the testator, but any lineal descendant of his survives the testator, the bequest shall not lapse, but shall take effect as if the death of the legatee had happened immediately after the death of the testator, unless a contrary intention appears by the will.


Illustration


A makes his will, by which he bequeaths a sum of money to his son, B, for his own absolute use and benefit. B dies before A, leaving a son, C, who survives A, and having made his will whereby he bequeaths all his property to his widow, D. The money goes to D.

 


Section 110. Bequest to A for benefit of B does not lapse by A’s death

Where a bequest is made to one person for the benefit of another, the legacy does not lapse by the death, in the testator’s lifetime, of the person to whom the bequest is made.

 


Section 111. Survivorship in case of bequest to described class

Where a bequest is made simply to a described class of persons, the thing bequeathed shall go only to such as are alive at the testator’s death.


Exception.–If property is bequeathed to a class of persons described as standing in a particular degree of kindred to a specified individual, but their possession of it is deferred until a time later than the death of the testator by reason of a prior bequest or otherwise, the property shall at that time go to such of them as are then alive, and to the representatives of any of them who have died since the death of the testator.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths 1,000 rupees to “the children of B” without saying when it is to be distributed among them. B had died previous to the date of the will, leaving three children, C, D and E. E died after the date of the will, but before the death of A. C and D survive A. The legacy will belong to C and D, to the exclusion of the representatives of E.


(ii) A lease for years of a house, was bequeathed to A for his life, and after his decease to the children of B. At the death of the testator, B had two children living, C and D, and he never had any other child. Afterwards, during the lifetime of A, C died, leaving E, his executor. D has survived A, D and E are jointly entitled to so much of the leasehold term as remains unexpired.


(iii) A sum of money was bequeathed to A for her life, and after her decease to the children of B. At the death of the testator, B had two children living, C and D, and, after that event, two children, E and F, were born to B. C and E died in the lifetime of A, C having made a will, E having made no will. A has died, leaving D and F surviving her. The legacy is to be divided into four equal parts, one of which is to be paid to the executor of C, one to D, one to the administrator of E and one to F.


(iv) A bequeaths one-third of his lands to B for his life, and after his decease to the sisters of B. At the death of the testator, B had two sisters living, C and D, and after that event another sister E was born. C died during the life of B, D and E have survived B. Onethird of A’s land belong to D, E and the representatives of C, in equal shares.


(v) A bequeaths 1,000 rupees to B for life and after his death equally among the children of C. Up to the death of B, C had not had any child. The bequest after the death of B is void.


(vi) A bequeaths 1,000 rupees to “all the children born or to be born” of B to be divided among them at the death of C. At the death of the testator, B has two children living, D and E. After the death of the testator, but in the lifetime of C, two other children, F and G, are born to B. After the death of C, another child is born to B. The legacy belongs to D, E, F and G, to the exclusion of the after-born child of B.


(vii) A bequeaths a fund to the children of B, to be divided among them when the eldest shall attain majority. At the testator’s death, B had one child living, named C. He afterwards had two other children, named D and E. E died, but C and D were living when C attained majority. The fund belongs to C, D and the representatives of E, to the exclusion of any child who may be born to B after C’s attaining majority.

 


Chapter VII – Void Bequests

Section 112. Bequest to person by particular description, who is not in existence at testator’s death

Where a bequest is made to a person by a particular description, and there is no person in existence at the testator’s death who answers the description, the bequest is void.


Exception.–If property is bequeathed to a person described as standing in a particular degree of kindred to a specified individual, but his possession of it is deferred until a time later than the death of the testator, by reason of a prior bequest or otherwise; and if a person answering the description is alive at the death of the testator, or comes into existence between that event and such later time, the property shall, at such later time, go to that person, or, if he is dead, to his representatives.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths 1,000 rupees to the eldest son of B. At the death of the testator, B has no son. The bequest is void.


(ii) A bequeaths 1,000 rupees to B for life, and after his death to the eldest son of C. At the death of the testator, C had no son. Afterwards, during the life of B, a son is born to C. Upon B’s death the legacy goes to C’s son.


(iii) A bequeaths 1,000 rupees to B for life, and after his death to the eldest son of C. At the death of the testator, C had no son. Afterwards, during the life of B, a son, named D, is born to C. D dies, then B dies. The legacy goes to the representative of D.


(iv) A bequeaths his estate of Green Acre to B for life, and at his decease, to the eldest son of C. Up to the death of B, C has had no son. The bequest to C’s eldest son is void.


(v) A bequeaths 1,000 rupees to the eldest son of C, to be paid to him after the death of B. At the death of the testator C has no son, but a son is afterwards born to him during the life of B and is alive at B’s death. C’s son is entitled to the 1,000 rupees.

 


Section 113. Bequest to person not in existence at testator’s death subject to prior bequest

Where a bequest is made to a person not in existence at the time of the testator’s death, subject to a prior bequest contained in the will, the later bequest shall be void, unless it comprises the whole of the remaining interest of the testator in the thing bequeathed.


Illustrations


(i) Property is bequeathed to A for his life, and after his death to his eldest son for life, and after the death of the latter to his eldest son. At the time of the testator’s death, A has no son. Here the bequest to A’s eldest son is a bequest to a person not in existence at the testator’s death. It is not bequest of the whole interest that remains to the testator. The bequest to A’s eldest son for his life is void.


(ii) A fund is bequeathed to A for his life, and after his death to his daughters. A survives the testator. A has daughters some of whom were not in existence at the testator’s death. The bequest to A’s daughters comprises the whole interest that remains to the testator in the thing bequeathed. The bequest to A’s daughters is valid.


(iii) A fund is bequeathed to A for his life, and after his death to his daughters, with a direction that, if any of them marries under the age of eighteen, her portion shall be settled so that it may belong to herself for life and may be divisible among her children after her death. A has no daughters living at the time of the testator’s death, but has daughters born afterwards who survive him. Here the direction for a settlement has the effect in the case of each daughter who marries under eighteen of substituting for the absolute bequest to her a bequest to her merely for her life; that is to say, a bequest to a person not in existence at the time of the testator’s death of something which is less than the whole interest that remains to the testator in the thing bequeathed. The direction to settle the fund is void.


(iv) A bequeaths a sum of money to B for life, and directs that upon the death of B the fund shall be settled upon his daughters, so that the portion of each daughter may belong to herself for life, and may be divided among her children after her death. B has no daughter living at the time of the testator’s death. In this case the only bequest to the daughters of B is contained in the direction to settle the fund, and this direction amounts to a bequest to persons not yet born, of a life-interest in the fund, that is to say, of something which is less than the whole interest that remains to the testator in the thing bequeathed. The direction to settle the fund upon the daughters of B is void.

 


Section 114. Rule against perpetuity

No bequest is valid whereby the vesting of the thing bequeathed may be delayed beyond the life-time of one or more persons living at the testator’s death and the minority of some person who shall be in existence at the expiration of that period, and to whom, if he attains full age, the thing bequeathed is to belong.


Illustrations


(i) A fund is bequeathed to A for his life and after his death to B for his life; and after B’s death to such of the sons of B as shall first attain the age of 25. A and B survive the testator. Here the son of B who shall first attain the age of 25 may be a son born after the death of the testator; such son may not attain 25 until more than 18 years have elapsed from the death of the longer liver of A and B; and the vesting of the fund may thus be delayed beyond the lifetime of A and B and the minority of the sons of B. The bequest after B’s death is void.


(ii) A fund is bequeathed to A for his life, and after his death to B for his life, and after B’s death to such of B’s sons as shall first attain the age of 25. B dies in the lifetime of the testator, leaving one or more sons. In this case the sons of B are persons living at the time of the testator’s decease, and the time when either of them will attain 25 necessarily falls within his own lifetime. The bequest is valid.


(iii) A fund is bequeathed to A for his life, and after his death to B for his life, with a direction that after B’s death it shall be divided amongst such of B’s children as shall attain the age of 18, but that, if no child of B shall attain that age, the fund shall go to C. Here the time for the division of the fund must arrive at the latest at the expiration of 18 years from the death of B, a person living at the testator’s decease. All the bequests are valid.


(iv) A fund is bequeathed to trustees for the benefit of the testator’s daughters, with a direction that, if any of them marry under age, her share of the fund shall be settled so as to devolve after her death upon such of her children as shall attain the age of 18. Any daughter of the testator to whom the direction applies must be in existence at his decease, and any portion of the fund which may eventually be settled as directed must vest not later than 18 years from the death of the daughters whose share it was. All these provisions are valid.

 


Section 115. Bequest to a class some of whom may come under rules in sections 113 and 114

If a bequest is made to a class of persons with regard to some of whom it is inoperative by reason of the provisions of section 113 or section 114, such bequest shall be 1[void in regard to those persons only, and not in regard to the whole class].


Illustrations


(i) A fund is bequeathed to A for life, and after his death to all his children who shall attain the age of 25. A survives the testator, and has some children living at the testator’s death. Each child of A’s living at the testator’s death must attain the age of 25 (if at all) within the limits allowed for a bequest. But A may have children after the testator’s decease, some of whom may not attain the age of 25 until more than 18 years have elapsed after the decease of A. The bequest to A’s children, therefor, is inoperative as to any child born after the testator’s death; 2[and in regard to those who do not attain the age of 25 within 18 years after A’s death, but is operative in regard to the other children of A].


(ii) A fund is bequeathed to A for his life, and after his death to B, C, D and all other children of A who shall attain the age of 25. B, C, D are children of A living at the testator’s decease. In all other respects the case is the same as that supposed in Illustration (i). 2[Although the mention of B, C and D does not prevent the bequest from being regarded as a bequest to a class, it is not wholly void. It is operative as regards any of the children B, C or D, who attains the age of 25 within 18 years after A’s death.]


——————–


1. Subs. by Act 21 of 1929, s. 14, for “wholly void”.


2. Subs. by s. 14, ibid., for certain original words.

 


Section 116. Bequest to take effect on failure of prior bequest

1[Bequest to take effect on failure of prior bequest. Where by reason of any of the rules contained in sections 113 and 114, any bequest in favour of a person or of a class of persons is void in regard to such person or the whole of such class, any bequest contained in the same will and intended to take effect after or upon failure of such prior bequest is also void.]


Illustrations


(i) A fund is bequeathed to A for his life, and after his death to such of his sons as shall first attain the age of 25, for his life, and after the decease of such son to B. A and B survive the testator. The bequest to B is intended to take effect after the bequest to such of the sons of A as shall first attain the age of 25, which bequest is void under section 114. The bequest to B is void.


(ii) A fund is bequeathed to A for his life, and after his death to such of his sons as shall first attain the age of 25, and, if no son of A shall attain that age, to B. A and B survive the testator. The bequest to B is intended to take effect upon failure of the bequest to such of A’s sons as shall first attain the age of 25, which bequest is void under section 114. The bequest to B is void.


——————–


1. Subs. by s. 14, ibid., for the original section.

 


Section 117. Effect of direction for accumulation

1[Effect of direction for accumulation. (1) Where the terms of a will direct that the income arising from any property shall be accumulated either wholly or in part during any period longer than a period of eighteen years from the death of the testator, such direction shall, save as hereinafter provided, be void to the extent to which the period during which the accumulation is directed exceeds the aforesaid period, and at the end of such period of eighteen years the property and the income thereof shall be disposed of as if the period during which the accumulation has been directed to be made had elapsed.


(2) This section shall not affect any direction for accumulation for the purpose of–


(i) the payment of the debts of the testator or any other person taking any interest under the will, or


(ii) the provision of portions for children or remoter issue of the testator or of any other person taking any interest under the will, or


(iii) the preservation or maintenance of any property bequeathed; and such direction may be made accordingly.]


——————–


1. Subs. by Act 21 of 1929, s. 14, for the original section.

 


Section 118. Bequest to religious or charitable uses

No man having a nephew or niece or any nearer relative shall have power to bequeath any property to religious or charitable uses, except by a will executed not less than twelve months before his death, and deposited within six months from its execution in some place provided by law for the safe custody of the wills of living persons:


1[“Provided that nothing in this section shall apply to a Parsi.”]


Illustrations


A having a nephew makes a bequest by a will not executed and deposited as required–


for the relief of poor people;

for the maintenance of sick soldiers;

for the erection or support of a hospital;

for the education and preferment of orphans;

for the support of scholars;

for the erection or support of a school;

for the building and repairs of a bridge;

for the making of roads;

for the erection or support of a church;

for the repairs of a church;

for the benefit of ministers of religion;

for the formation or support of a public garden;


All these bequests are void.


——————–


1. Added by Act 51 of 1991, s. 6.

 


Chapter VIII – Vesting of Legacies

Section 119. Date of vesting of legacy when payment or possession postponed

Where by the terms of a bequest the legatee is not entitled to immediate possession of the thing bequeathed, a right to receive it at the proper time shall, unless a contrary intention appears by the will, become vested in the legatee on the testator’s death, and shall pass to the legatee’s representatives if he dies before that time and without having received the legacy, and in such cases the legacy is from the testator’s death said to be vested in interest.


Explanation.–An intention that a legacy to any person shall not become vested in interest in him is not to be inferred merely from a provision whereby the payment or possession of the thing bequeathed is postponed, or whereby a prior interest therein is bequeathed to some other person, or whereby the income arising from the fund bequeathed is directed to be accumulated until the time of payment arrives, or from a provision that, if a particular event shall happen, the legacy shall go over to another person.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths to B 100 rupees, to be paid to him at the death of C. On A’s death the legacy becomes vested in interest in B, and if he dies before C, his representatives are entitled to the legacy.


(ii) A bequeaths to B 100 rupees, to be paid to him upon his attaining the age of 18. On A’s death the legacy becomes vested in interest in B.


(iii) A fund is bequeathed to A for life, and after his death to B. On the testator’s death the legacy to B becomes vested in interest in B.


(iv) A fund is bequeathed to A until B attains the age of 18 and then to B. The legacy to B is vested in interest from the testator’s death.


(v) A bequeaths the whole of his property to B upon trust to pay certain debts out of the income, and then to make over the fund to C. At A’s death the gift to C becomes vested in interest in him.


(vi) A fund is bequeathed to A, B and C in equal shares to be paid to them on their attaining the age of 18, respectively, with a proviso that, if all of them die under the age of 18, the legacy shall devolve upon D. On the death of the testator, the shares vested in interest in A, B and C, subject to be divested in case A, B and C shall all die under 18, and, upon the death of any of them (except the last survivor) under the age of 18, his vested interest passes, so subject, to his representatives.

 


Section 120. Date of vesting when legacy contingent upon specified uncertain event

(1) A legacy bequeathed in case a specified uncertain event shall happen does not vest until that event happens.


(2) A legacy bequeathed in case a specified uncertain event shall not happen does not vest until the happening of that event becomes impossible.


(3) In either case, until the condition has been fulfilled, the interest of the legatee is called contingent.


Exception.–Where a fund is bequeathed to any person upon his attaining a particular age, and the will also gives to him absolutely the income to arise from the fund before he reaches that age, or directs the income, or so much of it as may be necessary, to be applied for his benefit, the bequest of the fund is not contingent.


Illustrations


(i) A legacy is bequeathed to D in case A, B and C shall all die under the age of 18. D has a contingent interest in the legacy until A, B and C all die under 18, or one of them attains that age.


(ii) A sum of money is bequeathed to A “in case he shall attain the age of 18,” or “when he shall attain the age of 18”. A’s interest in the legacy is contingent until the condition is fulfilled by his attaining that age.


(iii) An estate is bequeathed to A for life, and after his death to B if B shall then be living; but if B shall not be then living to C. A, B and C survive the testator. B and C each take a contingent interest in the estate until the event which is to vest it in one or in the other has happened.


(iv) An estate is bequeathed as in the case last supposed. B dies in the lifetime of A and C. Upon the death of B, C acquires a vested right to obtain possession of the estate upon A’s death.


(v) A legacy is bequeathed to A when she shall attain the age of 18, or shall marry under that age with the consent of B, with a proviso that, if she neither attains 18 nor marries under that age with B’s consent, the legacy shall go to C. A and C each take a contingent interest in the legacy. A attains the age of 18. A becomes absolutely entitled to the legacy although she may have married under 18 without the consent of B.


(vi) An estate is bequeathed to A until he shall marry and after that event to B. B’s interest in the bequest is contingent until the condition is fulfilled by A’s marrying.


(vii) An estate is bequeathed to A until he shall take advantage of any law for the relief of insolvent debtors, and after that event to B. B’s interest in the bequest is contingent until A takes advantage of such a law.


(viii) An estate is bequeathed to A if he shall pay 500 rupees to B. A’s interest in the bequest is contingent until he has paid 500 rupees to B.


(ix) A leaves his farm of Sultanpur Khurd to B, if B shall convey his own farm of Sultanpur Buzurg to C. B’s interest in the bequest is contingent until he has conveyed the latter farm to C.


(x) A fund is bequeathed to A if B shall not marry C within five years after the testator’s death. A’s interest in the legacy is contingent until the condition is fulfilled by the expiration of the five years without B’s having married C, or by the occurrence within that period of an event which makes the fulfilment of the condition impossible.


(xi) A fund is bequeathed to A if B shall not make any provision for him by will. The legacy is contingent until B’s death.


(xii) A bequeaths of B 500 rupees a year upon his attaining the age of 18, and directs that the interest, or a competent part thereof, shall be applied for his benefit until he reaches that age. The legacy is vested.


(xiii) A bequeaths to B 500 rupees when he shall attain the age of 18 and directs that a certain sum, out of another fund, shall be applied for his maintenance until he arrives at that age. The legacy is contingent.

 


Section 121. Vesting of interest in bequest to such members of a class as shall have attained particular age

Where a bequest is made only to such members of a class as shall have attained a particular age, a person who has not attained that age cannot have a vested interest in the legacy.


Illustration


A fund is bequeathed to such of the children of A as shall attain the age of 18, with a direction that, while any child of A shall be under the age of 18, the income of the share, to which it may be presumed he will be eventually entitled, shall be applied for his maintenance and education. No child of A who is under the age of 18 has a vested interest in the bequest.

 


Chapter IX – Onerous Bequests

Section 122. Onerous bequests

Where a bequest imposes an obligation on the legatee, he can take nothing by it unless he accepts it fully.


Illustration


A, having shares in (X), a prosperous joint stock company and also shares in (Y), a joint stock company in difficulties, in respect of which shares heavy calls are expected to be made, bequeaths to B all his shares in joint stock companies; B refuses to accept the shares in (Y). He forfeits the shares in (X).

 


Section 123. One of two separate and independent bequests to same person may be accepted, and other refused

Where a will contains two separate and independent bequests to the same person, the legatee is at liberty to accept one of them and refuse the other, although the former may be beneficial and the latter onerous.


Illustration


A, having a lease for a term of years of a house at a rent which he and his representatives are bound to pay during the term, and which is higher than the house can be let for, bequeaths to B the lease and a sum of money. B refuses to accept the lease. He will not by this refusal forfeit the money.

 


Chapter X – Contingent Bequests

Section 124. Bequest contingent upon specified uncertain event, no time being mentioned for its occurrence

Where a legacy is given if a specified uncertain event shall happen and no time is mentioned in the will for the occurrence of that event, the legacy cannot take effect, unless such event happens before the period when the fund bequeathed is payable or distributable.


Illustrations


(i) A legacy is bequeathed to A, and, in case of his death, to B. If A survives the testator, the legacy to B does not take effect.


(ii) A legacy is bequeathed to A, and, in case of his death without children, to B. If A survives the testator or dies in his lifetime leaving a child, the legacy to B does not take effect.


(iii) A legacy is bequeathed to A when and if he attains the age of 18, and, in case of his death, to B. A attains the age of 18. The legacy to be does not take effect.


(iv) A legacy is bequeathed to A for life, and, after his death to B, and, “in case of B’s death without children,” to C. The words “in case of B’s death without children” are to be understood as meaning in case B dies without children during the lifetime of A.


(v) A legacy is bequeathed to A for life, and, after his death to B, and, “in case of B’s death,” to C. The words “in case of B’s death” are to be considered as meaning “in case B dies in the lifetime of A”.

 


Section 125. Bequest to such of certain persons as shall be surviving at some period not specified

Where a bequest is made to such of certain persons as shall be surviving at some period, but the exact period is not specified, the legacy shall go to such of them as are alive at the time of payment or distribution, unless a contrary intention appears by the will.


Illustrations


(i) Property is bequeathed to A and B to be equally divided between them, or to the survivor of them. If both A and B survive the testator, the legacy is equally divided between them. If A dies before the testator, and B survives the testator, it goes to B.


(ii) Property is bequeathed to A for life, and, after his death, to B and C, to be equally divided between them, or to the survivor of them. B dies during the life of A; C survives A. At A’s death the legacy goes to C.


(iii) Property is bequeathed to A for life, and after his death to B and C, or the survivor, with a direction that, if B should not survive the testator, his children are to stand in his place. C dies during the life of the testator; B survives the testator, but dies in the lifetime of A. The legacy goes to the representative of B.


(iv) Property is bequeathed to A for life, and, after his death, to B and C, with a direction that, in case either of them dies in the lifetime of A, the whole shall go to the survivor, B dies in the lifetime of A. Afterwards C dies in the lifetime of A. The legacy goes to the representative of C.

 


Chapter XI – Conditional Bequests

Section 126. Bequest upon impossible condition

A bequest upon an impossible condition is void.


Illustrations


(i) An estate is bequeathed to A on condition that he shall walk 100 miles in an hour. The bequest is void.


(ii) A bequeaths 500 rupees to B on condition that he shall marry A’s daughter. A’s daughter was dead at the date of the will. The bequest is void.

 


Section 127. Bequest upon illegal or immoral condition

A bequest upon a condition, the fulfilment of which would be contrary to law or to morality is void.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths 500 rupees to B on condition that he shall murder C. The bequest is void.


(ii) A bequeaths 5,000 rupees to his niece if she will desert her husband. The bequest is void.

 


Section 128. Fulfilment of condition precedent to vesting of legacy

Where a will imposes a condition to be fulfilled before the legatee can take a vested interest in the thing bequeathed, the condition shall be considered to have been fulfilled if it has been substantially complied with.


Illustrations


(i) A legacy is bequeathed to A on condition that he shall marry with the consent of B, C, D and E. A marries with the written consent of B. C is present at the marriage. D sends a present to A previous to the marriage. E has been personally informed by A of his intentions, and has made no objection. A has fulfilled the condition.


(ii) A legacy is bequeathed to A on condition that he shall marry with the consent of B, C and D. D dies. A marries with the consent of B and C. A has fulfilled the condition.


(iii) A legacy is bequeathed to A on condition that he shall marry with the consent of B, C and D. A marries in the lifetime of B, C and D, with the consent of B and C only. A has not fulfilled the condition.


(iv) A legacy is bequeathed to A on condition that he shall marry with the consent of B, C and D. A obtains the unconditional assent of B, C and D to his marriage with E. Afterwards B, C and D capriciously retract their consent. A marries E. A has fulfilled the condition.


(v) A legacy is bequeathed to A on condition that he shall marry with the consent of B, C and D. A marries without the consent of B, C and D, but obtains their consent after the marriage. A has not fulfilled the condition.


(vi) A makes his will whereby he bequeaths a sum of money to B if B shall marry with the consent of A’s executors. B marries during the lifetime of A, and A afterwards expresses his approbation of the marriage. A dies. The bequest to B takes effect.


(vii) A legacy is bequeathed to A if he executes a certain document within a time specified in the will. The document is executed by A within a reasonable time, but not within the time specified in the will. A has not performed the condition, and is not entitled to receive the legacy.

 


Section 129. Bequest to A and on failure of prior bequest to B

Where there is a bequest to one person and a bequest of the same thing to another, if the prior bequest shall fail, the second bequest shall take effect upon the failure of the prior bequest although the failure may not have occurred in the manner contemplated by the testator.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths a sum of money to his own children surviving him, and, if they all die under 18, to B. A dies without having ever had a child. The bequest to B takes effect.


(ii) A bequeaths a sum of money to B, on condition that he shall execute a certain document within three months after A’s death, and, if he should neglect to do so, to C. B dies in the testator’s lifetime. The bequest to C takes effect.

 


Section 130. When second bequest not to take effect on failure of first

Where the will shows an intention that the second bequest shall take effect only in the event of the first bequest failing in a particular manner, the second bequest shall not take effect, unless the prior bequest fails in that particular manner.


Illustration


A makes a bequest to his wife, but in case she should die in his lifetime, bequeaths to B that which he had bequeathed to her. A and his wife perish together, under circumstances which make it impossible to prove that she died before him, the bequest to B does not take effect.

 


Section 131. Bequest over, conditional upon happening or not happening of specified uncertain event

(1) A bequest may be made to any person with the condition super-added that, in case a specified uncertain event shall happen, the thing bequeathed shall go to another person, or that in case a specified uncertain event shall not happen, the thing bequeathed shall go over to another person.


(2) In each case the ulterior bequest is subject to the rules contained in sections 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129 and 130.


Illustrations


(i) A sum of money is bequeathed to A, to be paid to him at the age of 18, and if he shall die before he attains that age, to B. A takes a vested interest in the legacy, subject to be divested and to go to B in case A dies under 18.


(ii) An estate is bequeathed to A with a proviso that if A shall dispute the competency of the testator to make a will, the estate goes to B.


(iii) A sum of money is bequeathed to A for life, and, after his death, to B, but if B shall then be dead leaving a son, such son is to stand in the place of B. B takes a vested interest in the legacy, subject to be divested if he dies leaving a son in A’s lifetime.


(iv) A sum of money is bequeathed to A and B, and if either should die during the life of C, then to the survivor living at the death of C. A and B die before C. The gift over cannot take effect, but the representative of A takes one-half of the money, and the representative of B takes the other half.


(v) A bequeaths to B the interest of a fund for life, and directs the fund to be divided at her death equally among her three children, or such of them as shall be living at her death. All the children of B die in B’s lifetime. The bequest over cannot take effect, but the interests of the children pass to their representatives.

 


Section 132. Condition must be strictly fulfilled

An ulterior bequest of the kind contemplated by section 131 cannot take effect, unless the condition is strictly fulfilled.


Illustrations


(i) A legacy is bequeathed to A, with a proviso that, if he marries without the consent of B, C and D, the legacy shall go to E. D dies. Even if A marries without the consent of B and C, the gift to E does not take effect.


(ii) A legacy is bequeathed to A, with a proviso that, if he marries without the consent of B, the legacy shall go to C. A marries with the consent of B. He, afterwards becomes a widower and marries again without the consent of B. The bequest to C does not take effect.


(iii) A legacy is bequeathed to A, to be paid at 18, or marriage, with a proviso that, if A dies under 18 or marries without the consent of B. The bequest to C takes effect.

 


Section 133. Original bequest not affected by invalidity of second

If the ulterior bequest be not valid the original bequest is not affected by it.


Illustrations


(i) An estate is bequeathed to A for his life with condition super-added that, if he shall not on a given day walk 100 miles in an hour, the estate shall go to B. The condition being void, A retains his estate as if no condition had been inserted in the will.


(ii) An estate is bequeathed to A for her life and, if she do not desert her husband, to B. A is entitled to the estate during her life as if no condition had been inserted in the will.


(iii) An estate is bequeathed to A for life, and, if he marries, to the eldest son of B for life. B, at the date of the testator’s death, had not had a son. The bequest over is void under section 105, and A is entitled to the estate during his life.

 


Section 134. Bequest conditioned that it shall cease to have effect in case a specified uncertain event shall happen, or not happen

A bequest may be made with the condition super-added that it shall cease

to have effect in case a specified uncertain event shall happen, or in case a specified uncertain event shall not happen.


Illustrations


(i) An estate is bequeathed to A for his life, with a proviso that, in case he shall cut down a certain wood, the bequest shall cease to have any effect. A cuts down the wood. He loses his lifeinterest in the estate.


(ii) An estate is bequeathed to A, provided that, if he marries under the age of 25 without the consent of the executors named in the will, the estate shall cease to belong to him. A marries under 25 without the consent of the executors. The estate ceases to belong to him.


(iii) An estate is bequeathed to A, provided that, if he shall not go to England within three years after the testator’s death, his interest in the estate shall cease. A does not go to England within the time prescribed. His interest in the estate ceases.


(iv) An estate is bequeathed to A, with a proviso that, if she becomes a nun, she shall cease to have any interest in the estate. A becomes a nun. She loses her interest under the will.


(v) A fund is bequeathed to A for life, and, after his death, to B, if B shall be then living, with a proviso that, if B shall become a nun, the bequest to her shall cease to have any effect. B becomes a nun in the lifetime of A. She thereby loses her contingent interest in the fund.

 


Section 135. Such condition must not be invalid under section 120

In order that a condition that a bequest shall cease to have effect may be valid, it is necessary that the event to which it relates be one which could legally constitute the condition of a bequest as contemplated by section 120.

 


Section 136. Result of legatee rendering impossible or indefinitely postponing act for which no time specified, and on non-performance of which subject matter to go over

Where a bequest is made with a condition super-added that, unless the legatee shall perform a certain act, the subject-matter of the bequest shall go to another person, or the bequest shall cease to have effect but no time is specified for the performance of the act; if the legatee takes any step which renders impossible or indefinitely postpones the performance of the act required, the legacy shall go as if the legatee had died without performing such act.


Illustrations


(i) A bequest is made to A, with a proviso that, unless he enters the Army, the legacy shall go over to B. A takes Holy Orders, and thereby renders it impossible that he should fulfil the condition. B is entitled to receive the legacy.


(ii) A bequest is made to A, with a proviso that it shall cease to have any effect if he does not marry B’s daughter. A marries a stranger and thereby indefinitely postpones the fulfilment of the conditions. The bequest ceases to have effect.

 


Section 137. Performance of condition, precedent or subsequent, within specified time. Further time in case of fraud

Where the will requires an act to be performed by the legatee within a specified time, either as a condition to be fulfilled before the legacy is enjoyed, or as a condition upon the non-fulfilment of which the subject-matter of the bequest is to go over to another person or the bequest is to cease to have effect, the act must be performed within the time specified, unless the performance of it be prevented by fraud, in which case such further time shall be allowed as shall be requisite to make up for the delay caused by such fraud.

 


Chapter XII – Bequests with Directions as to Application or Enjoyment

Section 138. Direction that fund be employed in particular manner following absolute bequest of same to or for benefit of any person

Where a fund is bequeathed absolutely to or for the benefit of any person, but the will contains a direction that it shall be applied or enjoyed in a particular manner, the legatee shall be entitled to receive the fund as if the will had contained no such direction.


Illustration


A sum of money is bequeathed towards purchasing a country residence for A, or to purchase an annuity for A, or to place A in any business. A choses to receive the legacy in money. He is entitled to do so.

 


Section 139. Direction that mode of enjoyment of absolute bequest is to be restricted, to secure specified benefit for legatee

Where a testator absolutely bequeaths a fund, so as to sever it from his own estate, but directs that the mode of enjoyment of it by the legatee shall be restricted so as to secure a specified benefit for the legatee; if that benefit cannot be obtained for the legatee, the fund belongs to him as if the will had contained no such direction.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths the residue of his property to be divided equally among his daughters, and directs that the shares of the daughters shall be settled upon themselves respectively for life and be paid to their children after their death. All the daughters die unmarried. The representatives of each daughter are entitled to her share of the residue.


(ii) A directs his trustees to raise a sum of money for his daughter, and he then directs that they shall invest the fund and pay the income arising from it to her life, and divide the principal among her children after her death. The daughter dies without having ever had a child. Her representatives are entitled to the fund.

 


Section 140. Bequest of fund for certain purposes, some of which cannot be fulfilled

Where a testator does not absolutely bequeath a fund, so as to sever it from his own estate, but gives it for certain purposes, and part of those purposes cannot be fulfilled, the fund, or so much of it as has not been exhausted upon the objects contemplated by the will, remains a part of the estate of the testator.


Illustrations


(i) A directs that his trustees shall invest a sum of money in a particular way, and shall pay the interest to his son for life, and at his death shall divide the principal among his children. The son dies without having ever had a child. The fund, after the son’s death, belongs to the estate of the testator.


(ii) A bequeaths the residue of his estate, to be divided equally among his daughters, with a direction that they are to have the interest only during their lives, and that at their decease the fund shall go to their children. The daughters have no children. The fund belongs to the estate of the testator.

 


Chapter XIII – Bequests to an Executor

Section 141. Legatee named as executor cannot take unless he shows intention to act as executor

If a legacy is bequeathed to a person who is named an executor of the will, he shall not take the legacy, unless he proves the will or otherwise manifests an intention to act as executor.


Illustration


A legacy is given to A, who is named an executor. A orders the funeral according to the directions contained in the will, and dies a few days after the testator, without having proved the will. A has manifested an intention to act as executor.

 


Chapter XIV – Specific Legacies

Section 142. Specific legacy defined

Where a testator bequeaths to any person a specified part of his property, which is distinguished from all other parts of his property, the legacy is said to be specific.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths to B–

“the diamond ring presented to me by C”:

“my gold chain”:

“a certain bale of wool”:

“a certain piece of cloth”:

“all my household goods which shall be in or about my dwelling-house in M. Street, in Calcutta, at time of my death”:

“the sum of 1,000 rupees in a certain chest”:

“the debt which B owes me”:

“all my bills, bonds and securities belonging to me lying in my lodgings in Calcutta”:

“all my furniture in my house in Calcutta”:

“all my goods on board a certain ship now lying in the river Hughli”:

“2,000 rupees which I have in the hands of C”:

“the money due to me on the bond of D”:

“my mortgage on the Rampur factory”:

“one-half of the money owing to me on my mortgage of Rampur factory”:

“1,000 rupees, being part of a debt due to me from C”:

“my capital stock of 1,000l, in East India Stock”:

“my promissory notes of the Central Government for 10,000 rupees in their 4 per cent. loan”:

“all such sums of money as my executors may, after my death, receive in respect of the debt due to me from the insolvent firm of D and Company”:

“all the wine which I may have in my cellar at the time of my death”:


“such of my horses as B may select”:

“all my shares in the Imperial Bank of India”:

“all my shares in the Imperial Bank of India which I may possess at the time of my death”:

“all the money which I have in the 5 1/2 per cent. loan of the Central Government”:

“all the Government securities I shall be entitled to at the time of my decease.”


Each of these legacies is specific.


(ii) A, having Government promissory notes for 10,000 rupees, bequeaths to his executors “Government promissory notes for 10,000 rupees in trust to sell” for the benefit of B. The legacy is specific.


(iii) A, having property at Benares, and also in other places, bequeaths to B all his property at Benares. The legacy is specific.


(iv) A bequeaths to B–

his house in Calcutta:

his zamindari of Rampur:

his taluq of Ramnagar:

his lease of the indigo-factory of Salkya:

an annuity of 500 rupees out of the rents of his zamindari of W.


A directs his zamindari of X to be sold, and the proceeds to be invested for the benefit of B.


Each of these bequests is specific.


(v) A by his will charges his zamindari of Y with an annuity of 1,000 rupees to C during his life, and subject to this charge he bequeaths the zamindari to D. Each of these bequests is specific.


(vi) A bequeaths a sum of money–

to buy a house in Calcutta for B:

to buy an estate in zila Faridpur for B:

to buy a diamond ring for B;

to buy a horse for B:

to be invested in shares in the Imperial Bank of India for B:

to be invested in Government securities for B.

A bequeaths to B–

“a diamond ring”:

“a horse”:

“10,000 rupees worth of Government securities”:

“an annuity of 500 rupees”:

“2,000 rupees to be paid in cash”:

“so much money as will produce 5,000 rupees four per cent. Government securities.”


These bequests are not specific.


(vii) A, having property in England and property in India, bequeaths a legacy to B, and directs that it shall be paid out of the property which he may leave in India. He also bequeaths a legacy to C, and directs that it shall be paid out of property which he may leave in England. No one of these legacies is specific.

 


Section 143. Bequest of certain sum where stocks, etc., in which invested are described

Where a certain sum is bequeathed, the legacy is not specific merely because the stock, funds or securities in which it is invested are described in the will.


Illustration


A bequeaths to B–

“10,000 rupees of my funded property”:

“10,000 rupees of my property now invested in shares of the East Indian Railway Company”:

“10,000 rupees, at present secured by mortgage of Rampur factory.”


No one of these legacies is specific.

 


Section 144. Bequest of stock where testator had, at date of will, equal or greater amount of stock of same kind

Where a bequest is made in general terms of a certain amount of any kind of stock, the legacy is not specific merely because the testator was, at the date of his will, possessed of stock of the specified kind, to an equal or greater amount than the amount bequeathed.


Illustration


A bequeaths to B 5,000 rupees five per cent. Government securities. A had at the date of the will five per cent. Government securities for 5,000 rupees. The legacy is not specific.

 


Section 145. Bequest of money where not payable until part of testator’s property disposed of in certain way

A money legacy is not specific merely because the will directs its payment to be postponed until some part of the property of the testator has been reduced to a certain form, or remitted to a certain place.


Illustration


A bequeaths to B 10,000 rupees and directs that this legacy shall be paid as soon as A’s property in India shall be realised in England. The legacy is not specific.

 


Section 146. When enumerated articles not deemed specifically bequeathed

Where a will contains a bequest of the residue of the testator’s property along with an enumeration of some items of property not previously bequeathed, the articles enumerated shall not be deemed to be specifically bequeathed.

 


Section 147. Retention, in form, of specific bequest to several persons in succession

Where property is specifically bequeathed to two or more persons in succession, it shall be retained in the form in which the testator left it, although it may be of such a nature that its value is continually decreasing.


Illustrations


(i) A, having lease of a house for a term of years, fifteen of which were unexpired at the time of his death, has bequeathed the lease to B for his life, and after B’s death to C. B is to enjoy the property as A left it, although, if B lives for fifteen years, C can take nothing under the bequest.


(ii) A, having an annuity during the life of B, bequeaths it to C, for his life, and, after C’s death, to D. C is to enjoy the annuity as A left it, although, if B dies before D, D can take nothing under the bequest.

 


Section 148. Sale and investment of proceeds of property bequeathed to two or more persons in succession

Where property comprised in a bequest to two or more persons in succession is not specifically bequeathed, it shall, in the absence of any direction to the contrary, be sold, and the proceeds of the sale shall be invested in such securities as the High Court may by any general rule authorise or direct, and the fund thus constituted shall be enjoyed by the successive legatees according to the terms of the will.


Illustration


A, having a lease for a term of years, bequeaths all his property to B for life, and, after B’s death, to C. The lease must be sold, the proceeds invested as stated in this section and the annual income arising from the fund is to be paid to B for life. At B’s death the capital of the fund is to be paid to C.

\


Section 149. Where deficiency of assets to pay legacies, specific legacy not to abate with general legacies

If there is a deficiency of assets to pay legacies, a specific legacy is not liable to abate with the general legacies.

 


Chapter XV – Demonstrative Legacies

Section 150. Demonstrative legacy defined

Where a testator bequeaths a certain sum of money, or a certain quantity of any other commodity, and refers to a particular fund or stock so as to constitute the same the primary fund or stock out of which payment is to be made, the legacy is said to be demonstrative.


Explanation.–The distinction between a specific legacy and a demonstrative legacy consists in this, that–


where specified property is given to the legatee, the legacy is specific;


where the legacy is directed to be paid out of specified property, it is demonstrative.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths to B, 1,000 rupees, being part of a debt due to him from W. He also bequeaths to C 1,000 rupees to be paid out of the debt due to him from w. The legacy to B is specific, the legacy to C is demonstrative.


(ii) A bequeaths to B–

“ten bushels of the corn which shall grow in my field of Green Acre”:

“80 chests of the indigo which shall be made at my factory of Rampur”:


“10,000 rupees out of my five per cent. promissory notes of the Central Government”:

An annuity of 500 rupees “from my funded property”:

“1,000 rupees out of the sum of 2,000 rupees due to me by C”:

an annuity, and directs it to be paid “out of the rents arising from my taluk of Ramnagar”.


(iii) A bequeaths to B–

“10,000 rupees out of my estate at Ramnagar,” or charges it on his estate at Ramnagar:

“10,000 rupees, being my share of the capital embarked in a certain business.”

Each of these bequests is demonstrative.

 


Section 151. Order of payment when legacy directed to be paid out of fund the subject of specific legacy

Where a portion of a fund is specifically bequeathed and a legacy is directed to be paid out of the same fund, the portion specifically bequeathed shall first be paid to the legatee, and the demonstrative legacy shall be paid out of the residue of the fund and, so far as the residue shall be deficient, out of the general assets of the testator.


Illustration


A bequeaths to B 1,000 rupees, being part of a debt due to him from W. He also bequeaths to C 1,000 rupees to be paid out of the debt due to him from W. The debt due to A from W is only 1,500 rupees; of these 1,500 rupees, 1,000 rupees belong to B, and 500 rupees are to be paid to C. C is also to receive 500 rupees out of the general assets of the testator

 


Chapter XVI – Ademption of Legacies

Section 152. Ademption explained

If anything which has been specifically bequeathed does not belong to the testator at the time of his death, or has been converted into property of a different kind, the legacy is adeemed; that is, it cannot take effect, by reason of the subjectmatter having been withdrawn from the operation of the will.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths to B–

“the diamond ring presented to me by C”:

“my gold chain”:

“a certain bale of wool”:

“a certain piece of cloth”:

“all my household goods which shall be in or about my dwelling-house in M. Street in Calcutta, at the time of my death.”


A in his lifetime,–

sells or gives away the ring:

converts the chain into a cup:


converts the wool into cloth:

makes the cloth into a garment:

takes another house into which he removes all his goods.


Each of these legacies is adeemed.


(ii) A bequeaths to B–

“the sum of 1,000 rupees, in a certain chest”:

“all the horses in my stable”.


At the death of A, no money is found in the chest, and no horses in the stable. The legacies are adeemed.


(iii) A bequeaths to B certain bales of goods. A takes the goods with him on a voyage. The ship and goods are lost at sea, and A is drowned. The legacy is adeemed.

 


Section 153. Non-ademption of demonstrative legacy

A demonstrative legacy is not adeemed by reason that the property on which it is charged by the will does not exist at the time of the death of the testator, or has been converted into property of a different kind, but it shall in such case be paid out of the general assets of the testator.

 


Section 154. Ademption of specific bequest of right to receive something from third party

Where the thing specifically bequeathed is the right to receive something of value from a third party, and the testator himself receives it, the bequest is adeemed.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths to B–

“the debt which C owes me”:

“2,000 rupees which I have in the hands of D”:

“the money due to me on the bond of E”:

“my mortgage on the Rampur factory.”

All these debts are extinguished in A’s lifetime, some with and some without his consent. All the legacies are adeemed.


(ii) A bequeaths to B his interest in certain policies of his life assurance. A in his lifetime receives the amount of the policies. The legacy is adeemed.

 


Section 155. Ademption pro tanto by testator’s receipt of part of entire thing specifically bequeathed

The receipt by the testator of a part of an entire thing specifically bequeathed shall operate as an ademption of the legacy to the extent of the sum so received.


Illustration


A bequeaths to B “the debt due to me by C”. The debt amounts to 10,000 rupees. C pays to A 5,000 rupees the one-half of the debt. The legacy is revoked by ademption, so far as regards the 5,000 rupees received by A.

 


Section 156. Ademption pro tanto by testator’s receipt of portion of entire fund of which portion has been specifically bequeathed

If a portion of an entire fund or stock is specifically bequeathed, the receipt by the testator of a portion of the fund or stock shall operate as an ademption only to the extent of the amount so received; and the residue of the fund or stock shall be applicable to the discharge of the specific legacy.


Illustration


A bequeaths to B one-half of the sum of 10,000 rupees due to him from W. A in his lifetime receives 6,000 rupees, part of the 10,000 rupees. The 4,000 rupees which are due from W to A at the time of his death belong to B under the specific bequest.

 


Section 157. Order of payment where portion of fund specifically bequeathed to one legatee, and legacy charged on same fund to another, and, testator having received portion of that fund, remainder insufficient to pay both legacies

Where a portion of a fund is specifically bequeathed to one legatee, and a legacy charged on the same fund is bequeathed to another legatee, then, if the testator receives a portion of that fund, and the remainder of the fund is insufficient to pay both the specific and the demonstrative legacy, the specific legacy shall be paid first, and the residue (if any) of the fund shall be applied so far as it will extend in payment of the demonstrative legacy, and the rest of the demonstrative legacy shall be paid out of the general assets of the testator.


Illustration


A bequeaths to B 1,000 rupees, part of the debt of 2,000 rupees due to him from W. He also bequeaths to C 1,000 rupees to be paid out of the debt due to him from W. A afterwards receives 1[500] rupees, part of that debt, and dies leaving only 1,500 rupees due to him from W. Of these 1,500 rupees, 1,000 rupees belong to B, and 500 rupees are to be paid to C. C is also to receive 500 rupees out of the general assets of the testator.


——————–


1. Subs. by Act 10 of 1927, s. 2 and Sch. I, for “5,000”.

 


Section 158. Ademption where stock, specifically bequeathed, does not exist at testator’s death

Where stock which has been specifically bequeathed does not exist at the testator’s death, the legacy is adeemed.


Illustration


A bequeaths to B–


“my capital stock of 1,000 l. in East India Stock”:

“my promissory notes of the Central Government for 10,000 rupees in their 4 per cent. loan.”


A sells the stock and the notes. The legacies are adeemed. Ademption pro tanto where stock, specifically bequeathed, exists in part only at testator’s death.

 


Section 159. Ademption pro tanto where stock, specifically bequeathed, exists in part only at testator’s death

Where stock which has been specifically bequeathed exists only in part at the testator’s death, the legacy is adeemed so far as regards that part of the stock which has ceased to exist.


Illustration


A bequeaths to B his 10,000 rupees in the 5 1/2 per cent. loan of the Central Government. A sells one-half of his 10,000 rupees in the loan in question. One-half of the legacy is adeemed.

 


Section 160. Non-ademption of specific bequest of goods described as connected with certain place, by reason of removal

A specific bequest of goods under a description connecting them with a certain place is not adeemed by reason that they have been removed from such place from any temporary cause, or by fraud, or without the knowledge or sanction of the testator.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths to B “all my household goods which shall be in or about my dwelling-house in Calcutta at the time of my death.” The goods are removed from the house to save them from fire. A dies before they are brought back.


(ii) A bequeaths to B “all my household goods which shall be in or about my dwelling-house in Calcutta at the time of my death”. During A’s absence upon a journey, the whole of the goods are removed from the house. A dies without having sanctioned their removal.


Neither of these legacies is adeemed.

 


Section 161. When removal of thing bequeathed does not constitute ademption

The removal of the thing bequeathed from the place in which it is stated in the will to be situated does not constitute an ademption, where the place is only referred to in order to complete the description of what the testator meant to bequeath.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths to B “all the bills, bonds and other securities for money belonging to me now lying in my lodgings in Calcutta”. At the time of his death these effects had been removed from his lodgings in Calcutta.


(ii) A bequeaths to B all his furniture then in his house in Calcutta. The testator has a house at Calcutta and another at Chinsurah, in which he lives alternately, being possessed of one set of furniture only which he removes with himself to each house. At the time of his death the furniture is in the house at Chinsurah.


(iii) A bequeaths to B all his goods on board a certain ship then lying in the river Hughli. The goods are removed by A’s directions to a warehouse, in which they remain at the time of A’s death.


No one of these legacies is revoked by ademption.

 


Section 162. When thing bequeathed is a valuable to be received by testator from third person; and testator himself, or his representative, receives it

Where the thing bequeathed is not the right to receive something of value from a third person, but the money or other commodity which may be received from third person by the testator himself or by his representatives, the receipt of such sum of money or other commodity by the testator shall not constitute an ademption; but if he mixes it up with the general mass of his property, the legacy is adeemed.


Illustration


A bequeaths to B whatever sum may be received from his claim on C. A receives the whole of his claim on C, and sets it apart from the general mass of his property. The legacy is not adeemed.

 


Section 163. Change by operation of law of subject of specific bequest between date of will and testator’s death

Where a thing specifically bequeathed undergoes a change between the date of the will and the testator’s death, and the change takes place by operation of law, or in the course of execution of the provisions of any legal instrument under which the thing bequeathed was held, the legacy is not adeemed by reason of such change.


 Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths to B “all the money which I have in the 5 1/2 per cent. loan of the Central Government”. The securities for the 5 1/2 per cent. loan are converted during A’s lifetime into 5 per cent. stock.


(ii) A bequeaths to B the sum of 2,000 l. invested in Consols in the names of trustees for A. The sum of 2,000 l. is transferred by the trustees into A’s own name.


(iii) A bequeaths to B the sum of 10,000 rupees in promissory notes of the Central Government which he has power under his marriage settlement to dispose of by will. Afterwards, in A’s lifetime, the fund is converted into Consols by virtue of an authority contained in the settlement.


No one of these legacies has been adeemed.

 


Section 164. Change of subject without testator’s knowledge

Where a thing specifically bequeathed undergoes a change between the date of the will and the testator’s death, and the change takes place without the knowledge or sanction of the testator, the legacy is not adeemed.


Illustration


A bequeaths to B “all my 3 per cent. Consols”. The Consols are, without A’s knowledge, sold by his agent, and the proceeds converted into East India Stock. This legacy is not adeemed.

 


Section 165. Stock specifically bequeathed lent to third party on condition that it be replaced

Where stock which has been specifically bequeathed is lent to a third party on condition that it shall be replaced, and it is replaced accordingly, the legacy is not adeemed.

 


Section 166. Stock specifically bequeathed sold but replaced, and belonging to testator at his death

Where stock specifically bequeathed is sold, and an equal quantity of the same stock is afterwards purchased and belongs to the testator at his death, the legacy is not adeemed.

 


Chapter XVII – Payment of Liabilities in respect of the Subject of a Bequest

Section 167. Non-liability of executor to exonerate specific legatees

(1) Where property specifically bequeathed is subject at the death of the testator to any pledge, lien or incumbrance created by the testator himself or by any person under whom he claims, then, unless a contrary intention appears by the will, the legatee, if he accepts the bequest, shall accept it subject to such pledge or incumbrance, and shall (as between himself and the testator’s estate) be liable to make good the amount of such pledge or incumbrance.


(2) A contrary intention shall not be inferred from any direction which the will may contain for the payment of the testator’s debts generally.


Explanation.–A periodical payment in the nature of land-revenue or in the nature of rent is not such an incumbrance as is contemplated by this section.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths to B the diamond ring given him by C. At A’s death the ring is held in pawn by D to whom it has been pledged by A. It is the duty of A’s executors, if the state of the testator’s assets will allow them, to allow B to redeem the ring.


(ii) A bequeaths to B a zamindari which at A’s death is subject to a mortgage for 10,000 rupees; and the whole of the principal sum, together with interest to the amount of 1,000 rupees, is due at A’s death. B, if he accepts the bequest, accepts it subject to this charge, and is liable, as between himself and A’s estate, to pay the sum of 11,000 rupees thus due.

 


Section 168. Completion of testator’s title to things bequeathed to be at cost of his estate

Where anything is to be done to complete the testator’s title to the thing bequeathed, it is to be done at the cost of the testator’s estate.


Illustrations


(i) A, having contracted in general terms for the purchase of a piece of land at a certain price, bequeaths to B, and dies before he has paid the purchase-money. The purchase-money must be made good out of A’s assets.


(ii) A, having contracted for the purchase of a piece of land for a certain sum of money, one-half of which is to be paid down and the other half secured by mortgage of the land, bequeaths it to B, and dies before he has paid or secured any part of the purchase-money. One-half of the purchase-money must be paid out of A’s assets.


Section 169. Exoneration of legatee’s immoveable property for which land

Revenue or rent payable periodically.-Where there is a bequest of any interest in immovable property in respect of which payment in the nature of land-revenue or in the nature of rent has to be made periodically, the estate of the testator shall (as between such estate and the legatee) make good such payments or a proportion of them, as the case may be, up to the day of his death.


Illustration


A bequeaths to B a house, in respect of which 365 rupees are payable annually by way of rent. A pays his rent at the usual time, and dies 25 days after. A’s estate will make good 25 rupees in respect of the rent.

 


Section 170. Exoneration of specific legatee’s stock in joint-stock company

In the absence of any direction in the will, where there is a specific bequest of stock in a joint-stock company, if any call or other payment is due from the testator at the time of his death in respect of the stock, such call or payment shall, as between the testator’s estate and the legatee, be borne by the estate; but, if any call or other payment becomes due in respect of such stock after the testator’s death, the same shall, as between the testator’s estate and the legatee, be borne by the legatee, if he accepts the bequest.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths to B his shares in a certain railway. At A’s death there was due from him the sum of 100 rupees in respect of each share, being the amount of a call which had been duly made, and the sum of five rupees in respect of each share, being the amount of interest which had accrued due in respect of the call. These payments must be borne by A’s estate.


(ii) A has agreed to take 50 shares in an intended joint-stock company, and has contracted to pay up 100 rupees in respect of each share, which sum must be paid before his title to the shares can be completed. A bequeaths these shares to B. The estate of A must make good the payments which were necessary to complete A’s title.


(iii) A bequeaths to B his shares in a certain railway. B accepts the legacy. After A’s death, a call is made in respect of the shares. B must pay the call.


(iv) A bequeaths to B his shares in a joint-stock company. B accepts the bequest. Afterwards the affairs of the company are wound up, and each shareholder is called upon for contribution. The amount of the contribution must be borne by the legatee.


(v) A is the owner of ten shares in a railway company. At a meeting held during his lifetime a call is made of fifty rupees per share, payable by three instalments. A bequeaths his shares to B, and dies between the day fixed for the payment of the first and the day fixed for the payment of the second instalment, and without having paid the first instalment. A’s estate must pay the first instalment, and B, if he accepts the legacy, must pay the remaining instalments.

 


Chapter XVIII – Bequests of Things described in General Terms

Section 171. Bequest of thing described in general terms

If there is a bequest of something described in general terms, the executor must purchase for the legatee what may reasonably be considered to answer the description.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths to B a pair of carriage-horses or a diamond ring. The executor must provide the legatee with such articles if the state of the assets will allow it.


(ii) A bequeaths to B “my pair of carriage-horses”. A had no carriage-horses at the time of his death. The legacy fails.

 


Chapter XIX – Bequests of the Interest or Produce of a Fund

Section 172. Bequest of interest or produce of fund

Where the interest or produce of a fund is bequeathed to any person, and the will affords no indication of an intention that the enjoyment of the bequest should be of limited duration, the principal, as well as the interest, shall belong to the legatee.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths to B the interest of his 5 per cent. promissory notes of the Central Government. There is no other clause in the will affecting those securities. B is entitled to A’s 5 per cent. promissory notes of the Central Government.


(ii) A bequeaths the interest of his 5 1/2 per cent. promissory notes of the Central Government to B for his life, and after his death to C. B is entitled to the interest of the notes during his life, and C is entitled to the notes upon B’s death.


(iii) A bequeaths to B the rents of his lands at X. B is entitled to the lands.

 


Chapter XX – Bequests of Annuities

Section 173. Annuity created by will payable for life only unless contrary intention appears by will

Where an annuity is created by will, the legatee is entitled to receive it for his life only, unless a contrary intention appears by the will, notwithstanding that the annuity is directed to be paid out of the property generally, or that a sum of money is bequeathed to be invested in the purchase of it.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths to B 500 rupees a year. B is entitled during his life to receive the annual sum of 500 rupees.


(ii) A bequeaths to B the sum of 500 rupees monthly. B is entitled during his life to receive the sum of 500 rupees every month.


(iii) A bequeaths an annuity of 500 rupees to B for life, and on B’s death to C. B is entitled to an annuity of 500 rupees during his life. C, if he survives B, is entitled to an annuity of 500 rupees from B’s death until his own death.

 


Section 174. Period of vesting where will directs that annuity be provided out of proceeds of property, or out of property generally, or where money bequeathed to be invested in purchase of annuity

Where the will directs that an annuity shall be provided for any person out of the proceeds of property, or out of property generally, or where money is bequeathed to be invested in the purchase of any annuity for any person, on the testator’s death, the legacy vests in interest in the legatee, and he is entitled at his option to have an annuity purchased for him or to receive the money appropriated for that purpose by the will.


Illustrations


(i) A by his will directs that his executors shall, out of his property, purchase an annuity of 1,000 rupees for B. B is entitled at his option to have an annuity of 1,000 rupees for his life purchased for him or to receive such a sum as will be sufficient for the purchase of such an annuity.


(ii) A bequeaths a fund to B for his life, and directs that after B’s death, it shall be laid out in the purchase of an annuity for C. B and C survive the testator. C dies in B’s lifetime. On B’s death the fund belongs to the representative of C.

 


Section 175. Abatement of annuity

Where an annuity is bequeathed, but the assets of the testator are not sufficient to pay all the legacies given by the will, the annuity shall abate in the same proportion as the other pecuniary legacies given by the will.

 


Section 176. Where gift of annuity and residuary gift, whole annuity to be first satisfied

Where there is a gift of an annuity and a residuary gift, the whole of the annuity is to be satisfied before any part of the residue is paid to the residuary legatee, and, if necessary, the capital of the testator’s estate shall be applied for that purpose.

 


Chapter XXI – Legacies to Creditors and Portioners

Section 177. Creditor prima facie entitled to legacy as well as debt

Where a debtor bequeaths a legacy to his creditor, and it does not appear from the will that the legacy is meant as a satisfaction of the debt, the creditor shall be entitled to the legacy, as well as to the amount of the debt.

 


Section 178. Child prima facie entitled to legacy as well as portion

Where a parent, who is under obligation by contract to provide a portion for a child, fails to do so, and afterwards bequeaths a legacy to the child, and does not intimate by his will that the legacy is meant as a satisfaction of the portion, the child shall be entitled to receive the legacy, as well as the portion.


Illustration


A, by articles entered into in contemplation of his marriage with B covenanted that he would pay to each of the daughters of the intended marriage a portion of 20,000 rupees on her marriage. This covenant having been broken. A bequeaths 20,000 rupees to each of the married daughters of himself and B. The legatees are entitled to the benefit of this bequest in addition to their portions.

 


Section 179. No ademption by subsequent provision for legatee

No bequest shall be wholly or partially adeemed by a subsequent provision made by settlement or otherwise for the legatee.


Illustrations


(i) A bequeaths 20,000 rupees to his son B. He afterwards gives to B the sum of 20,000 rupees. The legacy is not thereby adeemed.


(ii) A bequeaths 40,000 rupees to B, his orphan niece whom he had brought up from her infancy. Afterwards, on the occasion of B’s marriage, A settles upon her the sum of 30,000 rupees. The legacy is not thereby diminished.


Chapter XXII – Election


Section 180. Circumstances in which election takes place


Where a person, by his will, professes to dispose of some thing which he has no right to dispose of, the person to whom the thing belongs shall elect either to confirm such disposition or to dissent from it, and, in the latter case, he shall give up any benefits which may have been provided for him by the will.

 


Section 181. Devolution of interest relinquished by owner

An interest relinquished in the circumstances stated in section 180 shall devolve as if it had not been disposed of by the will in favour of the legatee, subject, nevertheless, to the charge of making good to the disappointed legatee the amount or value of the gift attempted to be given to him by the will.

 


Section 182. Testator’s belief as to his ownership immaterial

The provisions of sections 180 and 181 apply whether the testator does or does not believe that which he professes to dispose of by his will to be his own.


Illustrations


(i) The farm of Sultanpur was the property of C. A bequeathed it to B, giving a legacy of 1,000 rupees to C. C has elected to retain his farm of Sultanpur, which is worth 800 rupees. C forfeits his legacy of 1,000 rupees, of which 800 rupees goes to B, and the remaining 200 rupees falls into the residuary bequest, or devolves according to the rules of intestate succession, as the case may be.


(ii) A bequeaths an estate to B in case B’s elder brother (who is married and has children) shall leave no issue living at his death. A also bequeaths to C a jewel, which belongs to B. B must elect to give up the jewel or to lose the estate.


(iii) A bequeaths to B 1,000 rupees, and to C an estate which will, under a settlement, belong to B if his elder brother (who is married and has children) shall leave no issue living at his death. B must elect to give up the estate or to lose the legacy.


(iv) A, a person of the age of 18, domiciled in 1[India] but owning real property in England, to which C is heir at law, bequeaths a legacy to C and, subject thereto, devises and bequeaths to B “all my property whatsoever and wheresoever,” and dies under 21. The real property in England does not pass by the will. C may claim his legacy without giving up the real property in England.


——————–


1. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch., for “the States”.

 


Section 183. Bequest for man’s benefit how regarded for purpose of election

A bequest for a person’s benefit is, for the purpose of election, the same thing as a bequest made to himself.


Illustration


The farm of Sultanpur Khurd being the property of B, A bequeathed it to C: and bequeathed another farm called Sultanpur Buzurg to his own executors with a direction that it should be sold and the proceeds applied in payment of B’s debts. B must elect whether he will abide by the will, or keep his farm of Sultanpur Khurd in opposition to it.

 


Section 184. Person deriving benefit indirectly not put to election

A person taking no benefit directly under a will, but deriving a benefit under it indirectly, is not put to his election.


Illustration


The lands of Sultanpur are settled upon C for life, and after his death upon D, his only child. A bequeaths the lands of Sultanpur to B, and 1,000 rupees to C. C dies intestate shortly after the testator, and without having made any election. D takes out administration to C, and as administrator elects on behalf of C’s estate to take under the will. In that capacity he receives the legacy of 1,000 rupees and accounts to B for the rents of the lands of Sultanpur which accrued after the death of the testator and before the death of C. In his individual character he retains the lands of Sultanpur in opposition to the will.

 


Section 185. Person taking in individual capacity under will may in other character elect to take in opposition

A person who in his individual capacity takes a benefit under a will may, in another character, elect to take in opposition to the will.


Illustration


The estate of Sultanpur is settled upon A for life, and after his death, upon B. A leaves the estate of Sultanpur to D, and 2,000 rupees to B, and 1,000 rupees to C, who is B’s only child. B dies intestate, shortly after the testator, without having made an election. C takes out administration to B, and as administrator elects to keep the estate of Sultanpur in opposition to the will, and to relinquish the legacy of 2,000 rupees. C may do this, and yet claim his legacy of 1,000 rupees under the will.

 


Section 186. Exception to provisions of last six sections

Notwithstanding anything contained in sections 180 to 185, where a particular gift is expressed in the will to be in lieu of something belonging to the legatee, which is also in terms disposed of by the will, then, if the legatee claims that thing, he must relinquish the particular gift, but he is not bound to relinquish any other benefit given to him by the will.


Illustration


Under A’s marriage-settlement his wife is entitled, if she survives him, to the enjoyment of the estate of Sultanpur during her life. A by his will bequeaths to his wife an annuity of 200 rupees during her life, in lieu of her interest in the estate of Sultanpur, which estate he bequeaths to his son. He also gives his wife a legacy of 1,000 rupees. The widow elects to take what she is entitled to under the settlement. She is bound to relinquish the annuity but not the legacy of 1,000 rupees.

 


Section 187. When acceptance of benefit given by will constitutes election to take under will

Acceptance of a benefit given by a will constitutes an election by the legatee to take under the will, if he had knowledge of his right to elect and of those circumstances which would influence the judgment of a reasonable man in making an election, or if he waives inquiry into the circumstances.


Illustrations


(i) A is owner of an estate called Sultanpur Khurd, and has a life interest in another estate called Sultanpur Buzurg to which upon his death his son B will be absolutely entitled. The will of A gives the estate of Sultanpur Khurd to B, and the estate of Sultanpur Buzurg to C. B, in ignorance of his own right to the estate of Sultanpur Buzurg, allows C to take possession of it, and enters into possession of the estate of Sultanpur Khurd. B has not confirmed the bequest of Sultanpur Buzurg to C.


(ii) B, the eldest son of A, is the possessor of an estate called Sultanpur. A bequeaths Sultanpur to C, and to B the residue of A’s property. B having been informed by A’s executors that the residue will amount to 5,000 rupees, allows C to take possession of Sultanpur. He afterwards discovers that the residue does not amount to more than 500 rupees. B has not confirmed the bequest of the estate of Sultanpur to C.

 


Section 188. Circumstances in which knowledge or waiver is presumed or inferred

(1) Such knowledge or waiver of inquiry shall, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, be presumed if the legatee has enjoyed for two years the benefits provided for him by the will without doing any act to express dissent.


(2) Such knowledge or waiver of inquiry may be inferred from any act of the legatee which renders it impossible to place the persons interested in the subject-matter of the bequest in the same condition as if such act had not been done.


Illustration


A bequeaths to B an estate to which C is entitled, and to C a coal-mine. C takes possession of the mine and exhausts it. He has thereby confirmed the bequest of the estate to B.

 


Section 189. When testator’s representatives may call upon legatee to elect

If the legatee does not, within one year after the death of the testator, signify to the testator’s representatives his intention to confirm or to dissent from the will, the representatives shall, upon the expiration of that period, require him to make his election; and, if he does not comply with such requisition within a reasonable time after he has received it, he shall be deemed to have elected to confirm the will.

 


Section 190. Postponement of election in case of disability

In case of disability the election shall be postponed until the disability ceases, or until the election is made by some competent authority.

 


Chapter XXIII – Gifts in Contemplation of Death

Section 191. Property transferable by gift made in contemplation of death

(1) A man may dispose, by gift made in contemplation of death, of any moveable property which he could dispose of by will.


(2) A gift is said to be made in contemplation of death where a man, who is ill and expects to die shortly of his illness, delivers, to another the possession of any moveable property to keep as a gift in case the donor shall die of that illness.


(3) Such a gift may be resumed by the giver; and shall not take effect if he recovers from the illness during which it was made; nor if he survives the person to whom it was made.


Illustrations


(i) A, being ill, and in expectation of death, delivers to B, to be retained by him in case of A’s death,–

a watch:

a bond granted by C to A:

a bank-note:

a promissory note of the Central Government endorseed in

blank:

a bill of exchange endorsed in blank:

certain mortgage-deeds.

A dies of the illness during which he delivered these articles.

B is entitled to–

the watch:

the debt secured by C’s bond:

the bank-note:

the promissory note of the Central Government:

the bill of exchange:

the money secured by the mortagage-deeds.


(ii) A, being ill, and in expectation of death, delivers to B the key of a trunk or the key of a warehouse in which goods of bulk belonging to A are deposited, with the intention of giving him the control over the contents of the trunk, or over the deposited goods, and desires him to keep them in case of A’s death. A dies of the illness during which he delivered these articles. B is entitled to the trunk and its contents or to A’s goods of bulk in the warehouse.


(iii) A, being ill, and in expectation of death, puts aside certain articles in separate parcels and marks upon the parcels respectively the names of B and C. The parcels are not delivered during the life of A. A dies of the illness during which he set aside the parcels. B and C are not entitled to the contents of the parcels. Person claiming right by succession to property of deceased may apply for relief against wrongful possession.


Part VII – Protection of Property of Deceased

 


Section 192. Person claiming right by succession to property of deceased may apply for relief against wrongful possession

(1) If any person dies leaving property, moveable or immoveable, any person claiming a right by succession thereto, or to any portion thereof, may make application to the District Judge of the district where any part of

the property is found or situate for relief, either after actual possession has been taken by another person, or when forcible means of seizing possession are apprehended.


(2) Any agent, relative or near friend, or the Court of Wards in cases within their cognizance, may, in the event of any minor, or any disqualified or absent person being entitled by succession to such property as aforesaid, make the like application for relief.

 


Section 193. Inquiry made by Judge

The District Judge to whom such application is made shall, in the first place, examine the applicant on oath, and may make such further inquiry, if any, as he thinks necessary as to whether there is sufficient ground for believing that the party in possession or taking forcible means for seizing possession has no lawful title, and that the applicant, or the person on whose behalf he applies is really entitled and is likely to be materially prejudiced if left to the ordinary remedy of a suit, and that the application is made bona fide.

 


Section 194. Procedure

If the District Judge is satisfied that there is sufficient ground for believing as aforesaid but not otherwise, he shall summon the party complained of, and give notice of vacant or disturbed possession by publication, and, after the expiration of a reasonable time, shall determine summarily the right to possession (subject to a suit as hereinafter provided) and shall deliver possession accordingly:


Provided that the Judge shall have the power to appoint an officer who shall take an inventory of effects, and seal or otherwise secure the same, upon being applied to for the purpose, without delay, whether he shall have concluded the inquiry necessary for summoning the party complained of or not.

 


Section 195. Appointment of curator pending determination of proceeding

If it further appears upon such inquiry as aforesaid that danger is to be apprehended of the misappropriation or waste of the property before the summary proceeding can be determined, and that the delay in obtaining security from the party in possession or the insufficiency thereof is likely to expose the party out of possession to considerable risk, provided he is the lawful owner, the District Judge may appoint one or more curators whose authority shall continue according to the terms of his or their respective appointment, and in no case beyond the determination of the summary proceeding and the confirmation or delivery of possession in consequence thereof:


Provided that, in the case of land, the Judge may delegate to the Collector, or to any officer subordinate to the Collector, the powers of a curator:


Provided, further, that every appointment of a curator in respect of any property shall be duly published.

 


Section 196. Powers conferrable on curator

The District Judge may authorise the curator to take possession of the property either generally, or until security is given by the party in possession, or until inventories of the property have been made, or for any other purpose necessary for securing the property from misappropriation or waste by the party in possession:


Provided that it shall be in the discretion of the Judge to allow the party in possession to continue in such possession on giving security or not, and any continuance in possession shall be subject to such orders as the Judge may issue touching inventories, or the securing of deeds or other effects.

 


Section 197. Prohibition of exercise of certain powers by curators

(1) Where a certificate has been granted under Part X or under the Succession Certificate Act, 1889 1, (7 of 1889.) or a grant of Probate or letters of administration has been made, a curator appointed under this Part shall not exercise any authority lawfully belonging to the holder of the certificate or to the executor or administrator. Payment of debts, etc., to curator.


(2) Payment of debts, etc., to curator.-All person who have paid debts or rents to a curator authorised by a Court to receive them shall be indemnified, and the curator shall be responsible for the payment thereof to the person who has obtained the certificate, probate or letters of administration, as the case may be.


——————–


1. Rep. partly by Act 39 of 1925, and finally by Act 1 of 1938.

 


Section 198. Curator to give security and may receive remuneration

(1) The District Judge shall take from the curator security for the faithful discharge of his trust, and for rendering satisfactory accounts of the same as hereinafter provided, and may authorise him to receive out of the property such remuneration, in no case exceeding five per centum on the moveable property and on the annual profits of the immoveable property, as the District Judge thinks reasonable.


(2) All surplus money realized by the curator shall be paid into Court, and invested in public securities for the benefit of the persons entitled thereto upon adjudication of the summary proceeding.


(3) Security shall be required from the curator with all reasonable despatch, and where it is practicable, shall be taken generally to answer all cases for which the person may be afterwards appointed curator; but no delay in the taking of security shall prevent the Judge from immediately investing the curator with the powers of his office.


Report from Collector where estate includes revenue-paying land.

 


Section 199. Report from Collector where estate includes revenue-paying land

(1) Where the estate of the deceased person consists wholly or in part of land paying revenue to Government, in all matters regarding the property of summoning the party in possession, of appointing a curator, or of nominating individuals to that appointment, the District Judge shall demand a report from the Collector, and the Collector shall thereupon furnish the same:


Provided that in cases of urgency the Judge may proceed, in the first instance, without such report.


(2) The Judge shall not be obliged to act in conformity with any such report, but, in case of his acting otherwise than according to such report, he shall immediately forward a statement of his reasons to the High Court, and the High Court, if it is dissatisfied with such reasons, shall direct the Judge to proceed conformably to the report of the Collector.

 


Section 200. Institution and defence of suits

The curator shall be subject to all orders of the District Judge regarding the institution or the defence of suits, and all suits may be instituted or defended in the name of the curator on behalf of the estate:


Provided that an express authority shall be requisite in the order of the curator’s appointment for the collection of debts or rents; but such express authority shall enable the curator to give a full acquittance for any sums of money received by virtue thereof.

 


Section 201. Allowances to apparent owners pending custody by curator

Pending the custody of the property by the curator, the District Judge may make such allowances to parties having a prima facie right thereto as upon a summary investigation of the rights and circumstances of the parties interested he considers necessary, and may, at his discretion, take security for the repayment thereof with interest, in the event of the party being found, upon the adjudication of the summary proceeding, not to be entitled thereto.

 


Section 202. Accounts to be filed by curator

The curator shall file monthly accounts in abstract, and shall, on the expiry of each period of three months, if his administration lasts so long, and, upon giving up the possession of the property, file a detailed account of his administration to the satisfaction of the District Judge.

 


Section 203. Inspection of accounts and right of interested party to keep duplicate

(1) The accounts of the curator shall be open to the inspection of all parties interested; and it shall be competent for any such interested party to appoint a separate person to keep a duplicate account of all receipts and payments by the curator.


(2) If it is found that the accounts of the curator are in arrear, or that they are erroneous or incomplete, or if the curator does not produce them whenever he is ordered to do so by the District Judge, he shall be punishable with fine not exceeding one thousand rupees for every such default.

 


Section 204. Bar to appointment of second curator for same property

If the Judge of any district has appointed a curator, in respect of the whole of the property of a deceased person, such appointment shall preclude the Judge of any other district within the same State from appointing any other curator, but the appointment of a curator in respect of a portion of the property of the deceased shall not preclude the appointment within the same State of another curator in respect of the residue or any portion thereof:


Provided that no Judge shall appoint a curator or entertain a summary proceeding in respect of property which is the subject of a summary proceeding previously instituted under this Part before another Judge:


Provided, further, that if two or more curators are appointed by different Judges for several parts of an estate, the High Court may make such order as it thinks fit for the appointment of one curator of the whole property.

 


Section 205. Limitation of time for application for curator

An application under this Part to the District Judge must be made within six months of the death of the proprietor whose property is claimed by right in succession.

 


Section 206. Bar to enforcement of Part against public settlement or legal directions by deceased

Nothing in this Part shall be deemed to authorise the contravention of any public act of settlement or of any legal directions given by a deceased proprietor of any property for the possession of his property after his decease in the event of minority or otherwise, and, in every such case, as soon as the Judge having jurisdiction over the property of a deceased person is satisfied of the existence of such directions, he shall give effect thereto.

 


Section 207. Court of Wards to be made curator in case of minors having property subject to its jurisdiction

Nothing in this Part shall be deemed to authorise any disturbance of the possession of a Court of Wards of any property; and in case a minor, or other disqualified person whose property is subject to the Court of Wards, is the party on whose behalf application is made under this Part, the District Judge, if he determines to summon the party in possession and to appoint a curator, shall invest the Court of Wards with the curatorship of the estate pending the proceeding without taking security as aforesaid; and if the minor or other disqualified person, upon the adjudication of the summary proceeding, appears to be entitled to the property, possession shall be delivered to the Court of Wards.

 


Section 208. Saving of right to bring suit

Nothing contained in this Part shall be any impediment to the bringing of a suit either by the party whose application may have been rejected before or after the summoning of the party in possession, or by the party who may have been evicted from the possession under this Part.

 


Section 209. Effect of decision of summary proceeding

The decision of a District Judge in a summary proceeding under this Part shall have no other effect than that of settling the actual possession; but for this purpose it shall be final, and shall not be subject to any appeal or review.

 


Part VIII – Representative Title to Property of Deceased on Succession

Section 210. Appointment of public curators

The State Government may appoint public curators for any district or number of districts; and the District Judge having jurisdiction shall nominate such public curators in all cases where the choice of a curator is left discretionary with him under this Part.

 


Section 211. Character and property of executor or administrator as such

(1) The executor or administrator, as the case may be, of a deceased person is his legal representative for all purposes, and all the property of the deceased person vests in him as such.


(2) When the deceased was a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh, 1[Jaina or Parsi] or an exempted person, nothing herein contained shall vest in an executor or administrator any property of the deceased person which would otherwise have passed by survivorship to some other person.


——————–


1. Subs. by Act 16 of 1962, s. 2, for “or Jaina”.

 


Section 212. Right to intestate’s property

(1) No right to any part of the property of a person who has died intestate can be established in any Court of Justice, unless letters of administration have first been granted by a Court of competent jurisdiction.


(2) This section shall not apply in the case of the intestacy of a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh, Jaina,1[Indian Christian or Parsi].


——————–


1. Subs. by s. 3, ibid., for “or Indian Christian”.

 


Section 213. Right as executor or legatee when established

(1) No right as executor or legatee can be established in any Court of Justice, unless a Court of competent jurisdiction in 1[India] has granted probate of the will under which the right is claimed, or has granted letters of administration with the will or with a copy of an authenticated copy of the will annexed.


2[(2) This section shall not apply in the case of wills made by Muhammadans, and shall only apply–


(i) in the case of wills made by any Hindu, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina where such wills are of the classes specified in clauses (a) and (b) of section 57; and


(ii) in the case of wills made by any Parsi dying, after the commencement of the Indian Succession (Amendment) Act, 1962, (16 of 1962.) where such wills are made within the local limits of the 3[ordinary original civil jurisdiction] of the High Courts at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay, and where such wills are made outside those limits, in so far as they relate to immovable property situate within those limits.]


——————–


1. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch., for “the States”.


2. Subs. by Act 16 of 1962, s. 4, for sub-section (2).


3. Subs. by Act 52 of 1964, s. 3 and Sch. II, for “ordinary civil jurisdiction”.


 

Section 214. Proof of representative title a condition precedent to recovery through the Courts of debts from debtors of deceased persons

(1) No Court shall–


(a) pass a decree against a debtor of a deceased person for payment of his debt to a person claiming on succession to be entitled to the effects of the deceased person or to any part thereof, or


(b) proceed, upon an application of a person claiming to be so entitled, to execute against such a debtor a decree or order for the payment of his debt, except on the production, by the person so claiming of–


(i) a probate or letters of administration evidencing the grant to him of administration to the estate of the deceased, or


(ii) a certificate granted under section 31 or section 32 of the Administrator General’s Act, 1913, (3 of 1913.) and having the debt mentioned therein, or


(iii) a succession certificate granted under Part X and having the debt specified therein, or


(iv) a certificate granted under the Succession Certificate Act, 1889 1*, (7 of 1889.) or


(v) a certificate granted under Bombay Regulation No. VIII of 1827, and, if granted after the first day of May, 1889, having the debt specified therein.


(2) The word “debt” in sub-section (1) includes any debt except rent, revenue or profits payable in respect of land used for agricultural purposes.

 


Section 215. Effection certificate of subsequent probate or letters of administration

(1) A grant of probate or letters of administration in respect of an estate shall be deemed to supersede any certificate previously granted under Part X or under the Succession Certificate Act, 18891 (7 of 1889), or Bombay Regulation No. VIII of 1827, in respect of any debts or securities included in the estate.


(2) When at the time of the grant of the probate or letters any suit or other proceeding instituted by the holder of any such certificate regarding any such debt or security is pending, the person to whom the grant is made shall, on applying to the Court in which the suit or proceeding is pending, be entitled to take the place of the holder of the certificate in the suit or proceeding:


Provided that, when any certificate is superseded under this section, all payments made to the holder of such certificate in ignorance of such supersession shall be held good against claims under the probate or letters of administration.


——————–


1. Rep. partly by Act 39 of 1925, and finally by Act 1 of 1938.

 


Section 216. Grantee of probate or administration alone to sue, etc., until same revoked

After any grant of probate or letters of administration, no other than the person to whom the same may have been granted shall have power to sue or prosecute any suit, or otherwise act as representative of the deceased, throughout the State in which the same may have been granted, until such probate or letters of administration has or have been recalled or revoked

 


Part IX – Probate, Letters of Administration and Administration of Assets of Deceased

Section 217. Application of Part

Save as otherwise provided by this Act or by any other law for the time being in force, all grants of probate and letters of administration with the will annexed and the administration of the assets of the deceased in cases of intestate succession shall be made or carried out, as the case may be, in accordance with the provisions of this Part.

 


Chapter I – Grant of Probate and Letters of Administration

Section 218. To whom administration may be granted, where deceased is a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh, Jaina or exempted person

(1) If the deceased has died intestate and was a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina or an exempted person, administration of his estate may be granted to any person who, according to the rules for the distribution of the estate applicable in the case of such deceased, would be entitled to the whole or any part of such deceased’s estate.


(2) When several such persons apply for such administration, it shall be in the discretion of the Court to grant it to any one or more of them.


(3) When no such person applies, it may be granted to a creditor of the deceased.

 


Section 219. Where deceased is not a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh, Jaina or exempted person

If the deceased has died intestate and was not a person belonging to any of the classes referred to in section 218, those who are connected with him, either by marriage or by consanguinity, are entitled to obtain letters of administration of his estate and effects in the order and according to the rules hereinafter stated, namely:–


(a) If the deceased has left a widow, administration shall be granted to the widow, unless the Court sees cause to exclude her, either on the ground of some personal disqualification, or because she has no interest in the estate of the deceased.


Illustrations


(i) The widow is a lunatic or has committed adultery or has been barred by her marriage settlement of all interest in her husband’s estate. There is cause for excluding her from the administration.


(ii) The widow has married again since the decease of her husband. This is not good cause for her exclusion.


(b) If the Judge thinks proper, he may associate any person or persons with the widow in the administration who would be entitled solely to the administration if there were no widow.


(c) If there is no widow, or if the Court sees cause to exclude the widow, it shall commit the administration to the person or persons who would be beneficially entitled to the estate according to the rules for the distribution of an intestate’s estate:


Provided that, when the mother of the deceased is one of the class of persons so entitled, she shall be solely entitled to administration.


(d) Those who stand in equal degree of kindred to the deceased are equally entitled to administration.


(e) The husband surviving his wife has the same right of administration of her estate as the widow has in respect of the estate of her husband.


(f) When there is no person connected with the deceased by marriage or consanguinity who is entitled to letters of administration and willing to act, they may be granted to a creditor.


(g) Where the deceased has left property in 1[India], letters of administration shall be granted according to the foregoing rules, notwithstanding that he had his domicile in a country in which the law relating to testate and intestate succession differs from the law of 1[India].


——————–


1. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch., for “the States”.

 


Section 220. Effect of letters of administration

Letters of administration entitle the administrator to all rights belonging to the intestate as effectually as if the administration had been granted at the moment after his death.

 


Section 221. Acts not validated by administration

Letters of administration do not render valid any intermediate acts of the administrator tending to the diminution or damage of the intestate’s estate

 


Section 222. Probate only to appointed executor

(1) Probate shall be granted only to an executor appointed by the will.


(2) The appointment may be expressed or by necessary implication.


Illustrations


(i) A wills that C be his executor if B will not. B is appointed executor by implication.


(ii) A gives a legacy to B and several legacies to other persons, among the rest to his daughter-in-law C, and adds “but should the within-named C be not living I do constitute and appoint B my whole and sole executrix”. C is appointed executrix by implication.


(iii) A appoints several persons executors of his will and codicils and his nephew residuary legatee, and in another codicil are these words,–“I appoint my nephew my residuary legatee to discharge all lawful demands against my will and codicils signed of different dates”. The nephew is appointed an executor by implication.

 


Section 223. Persons to whom probate cannot be granted

Probate cannot be granted to any person who is a minor or is of unsound mind 1[nor to any association of individuals unless it is a company which satisfies the conditions prescribed by rules to be made 3[, by notification in the Official Gazette] by the 2[State Government] in this behalf].


——————–


1. Added by Act 17 of 1931, s. 2. The words “nor, unless the deceased was a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina or an exempted person, to a married woman without the previous consent of her husband” which originally occurred at the end of this section had been omitted by Act 18 of 1927, s. 2.


2. The words “G. G. in C.” have been successively amended by the A. O. 1937 and the A. O. 1950 to read as above.


3. Ins. by Act 20 of 1983, s. 2 & Sch. (w.e.f. 15-3-1984).

 


Section 224. Grant of probate to several executors simultaneously or at different times

When several executors are appointed, probate may be granted to them all simultaneously or at different times.


Illustration


A is an executor of B’s will by express appointment and C an executor of it by implication. Probate may be granted to A and C at the same time or to A first and then to C, or to C first and then to A.

 


Section 225. Separate probate of codicil discovered after grant of probate

(1) If a codicil is discovered after the grant of probate, a separate probate of that codicil may be granted to the executor, if it in no way repeals the appointment of executors made by the will.


(2) If different executors are appointed by the codicil, the probate of the will shall be revoked, and a new probate granted of the will and the codicil together.

 


Section 226. Accrual of representation to surviving executor

When probate has been granted to several executors, and one of them dies, the entire representation of the testator accrues to the surviving executor or executors.

 


Section 227. Effect of probate

Probate of a will when granted established the will from the death of the testator, and renders valid all intermediate acts of the executor as such.

 


Section 228. Administration, with copy annexed, of authenticated copy of will proved abroad

When a will has been proved and deposited in a Court of competent jurisdiction situated beyond the limits of the State, whether within or beyond the limits of 1[India], and a properly authenticated copy of the will is produced, letters of administration may be granted with a copy of such copy annexed.


——————–


1. Subs. by the A. O. 1950 for “His Majesty’s dominions”.

 


Section 229. Grant of administration where executor has not renounced

When a person appointed an executor has not renounced the executorship, letters of administration shall not be granted to any other person until a citation has been issued, calling upon the executor to accept or renounce his executorship:


Provided that, when one or more of several executors have proved a will, the Court may, on the death of the survivor of those who have proved, grant letters of administration without citing those who have not proved.

 


Section 230. Form and effect of renunciation of executor-ship

The renunciation may be made orally in the presence of the Judge, or by a writing signed by the person renouncing, and when made shall preclude him from ever thereafter applying for probate of the will appointing him executor.

 


Section 231. Procedure where executor renounces or fails to accept within time limited

If an executor renounces or fails to accept an executorship within the time limited for the acceptance or refusal thereof, the will may be proved and letters of administration, with a copy of the will annexed, may be granted to the person who would be entitled to administration in case of intestacy.

 


Section 232. Grant of administration to universal or residuary legatees

When–


(a) the deceased has made a will, but has not appointed an executor, or


(b) the deceased has appointed an executor who is legally incapable or refuses to act, or who has died before the testator or before he has proved the will, or


(c) the executor dies after having proved the will, but before he has administered all the estate of the deceased,


an universal or a residuary legatee may be admitted to prove the will, and letters of administration with the will annexed may be granted to him of the whole estate, or of so much thereof as may be unadministered.

 


Section 233. Right to administration of representative of deceased residuary legatee

When a residuary legatee who has a beneficial interest survives the testator, but dies before the estate has been fully administered, his representative has the same right to administration with the will annexed as such residuary legatee.

 


Section 234. Grant of administration where no executor, nor residuary legatee nor representative of such legatee

When there is no executor and no residuary legatee or representative of a residuary legatee, or he declines or is incapable to act, or cannot be found, the person or persons who would be entitled to the administration of the estate of the deceased if he had died intestate, or any other legatee having a beneficial interest, or a creditor, may be admitted to prove the will, and letters of administration may be granted to him or them accordingly.

 


Section 235. Citation before grant of administration to legatee other than universal or residuary

Letters of administration with the will annexed shall not be granted to any legatee other than an universal or a residuary legatee, until a citation has been issued and published in the manner hereinafter mentioned, calling on the next-of-kin to accept or refuse letters of administration.

 


Section 236. To whom administration may not be granted

Letters of administration cannot be granted to any person who is a minor or is of unsound mind, 1[nor to any association of individuals unless it is a

company which satisfies the conditions prescribed by rules to be made 2[“, by notification in the Official Gazette,”] by the 3[State Government] in this behalf].


——————–


1. Added by Act 17 of 1931, s. 2. The words “nor, unless the deceased was a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh, or Jaina or an exempted person, to a married woman without the previous consent of her husband” which originally occurred at the end of this section had been omitted by Act 18 of 1927, s. 2.


2. Ins. by Act 20 of 1983, S. 2 & Sch. (w.e.f. 15-3-84).


3. The words “G. G. in C.” have been successively amended by the A. O. 1937 and the A. O. 1950 to read as above.

 


Section 236 A. Laying of rules before State Legislature

1[Laying of rules before State Legislature. Every rule made by the State Government under section 223 and section 236 shall be laid, as soon as it is made, before the State Legislature.”].


——————–


1. Ins. by Act 20 of 1983, S. 2 & Sch. (w.e.f. 15-3-84).


Grants limited in duration

 


Chapter II – Limited Grants

Section 237. Probate of copy or draft of lost will

When a will has been lost or mislaid since the testator’s death, or has been destroyed by wrong or accident and not by any act of the testator, and a copy or the draft of the will has been preserved, probate may be granted of such copy or draft, limited until the original or a properly authenticated copy of it is produced.

 


Section 238. Probate of contents of lost or destroyed will

When a will has been lost or destroyed and no copy has been made nor the draft preserved, probate may be granted of its contents if they can be established by evidence.

 


Section 239. Probate of copy where original exists

When the will is in the possession of a person residing out of the State in which application for probate is made, who has refused or neglected to deliver it up, but a copy has been transmitted to the executor, and it is necessary for the interests of the estate that probate should be granted without waiting for the arrival of the original, probate may be granted of the copy so transmitted, limited until the will or an authenticated copy of it is produced.

 


Section 240. Administration until will produced

Where no will of the deceased is forthcoming, but there is reason to believe that there is a will in existence, letters of administration may be granted, limited until the will or an authenticated copy of it is produced.


Grants for the use and benefit of others having right


Grants for the use and benefit of others having right

 


Section 241. Administration, with will annexed, to attorney of absent executor

When any executor is absent from the State in which application is made, and there is no executor within the State willing to act, letters of administration, with the will annexed, may be granted to the attorney or agent of the absent executor, for the use and benefit of his principal, limited until he shall obtain probate or letters of administration granted to himself.

 


Section 242. Administration, with will annexed, to attorney of absent person who, if present, would be entitled to administer

When any person to whom, if present, letters of administration, with the will

annexed, might be granted, is absent from the State, letters of administration, with the will annexed may be granted to his attorney or agent, limited as mentioned in section 241.

 


Section 243. Administration to attorney of absent person entitled to administer in case of intestacy

When a person entitled to administration in case of intestacy is absent from the State, and no person equally entitled is willing to act, letters of administration may be granted to the attorney or agent of the absent person, limited as mentioned in section 241.

 


Section 244. Administration during minority of sole executor or residuary legatee

When a minor is sole executor or sole residuary legatee, letters of administration, with the will annexed, may be granted to the legal guardian of such minor or to such other person as the Court may think fit until the minor has attained his majority at which period, and not before, probate of the will shall be granted to him.

 


Section 245. Administration during minority of several executors or residuary legatees

When there are two or more minor executors and no executor who has attained majority, or two or more residuary legatees and no residuary legatee who has attained majority, the grant shall be limited until one of them shall have attained his majority.

 


Section 246. Administration for use and benefit of lunatic or minor

If a sole executor or a sole universal or residuary legatee, or a person who would be solely entitled to the estate of the intestate according to the rule for the distribution of intestates’ estates applicable in the case of the deceased, is a minor or lunatic, letters of administration, with or without the will annexed, as the case may be, shall be granted to the person to whom the care of his estate has been committed by competent authority, or, if there is no such person, to such other person as the Court may think fit to appoint, for the use and benefit of the minor or lunatic until he attains majority or becomes of sound mind, as the case may be.

 


Section 247. Administration pendente lite

Pending any suit touching the validity of the will of a deceased person or for obtaining or revoking any probate or any grant of letters of administration, the Court may appoint an administrator of the estate of such deceased person, who shall have all the rights and powers of a general administrator, other than the right of distributing such estate, and every such administrator shall be subject to the immediate control of the Court and shall act under its direction.

 


Section 248. Probate limited to purpose specified in will

If an executor is appointed for any limited purpose specified in the will, the probate shall be limited to that purpose, and if he should appoint an attorney or agent to take administration on his behalf, the letters of administration, with the will annexed, shall be limited accordingly.

 


Section 249. Administration, with will annexed, limited to particular purpose

If an executor appointed generally gives an authority to an attorney or agent to prove a will on his behalf, and the authority is limited to a particular purpose, the letters of administration, with the will annexed, shall be limited accordingly.

 


Section 250. Administration limited to property in which person has beneficial interest

Where a person dies, leaving property of which he was the sole or surviving trustee, or in which he had no beneficial interest on his own account, and leaves no general representative, or one who is unable or unwilling to act as such, letters of administration, limited to such property, may be granted to the beneficiary, or to some other person on his behalf.

 


Section 251. Administration limited to suit

When it is necessary that the representative of a person deceased be made a party to a pending suit, and the executor, or person entitled to administration is unable or unwilling to act, letters of administration may be granted to the nominee of a party in such suit, limited for the purpose of representing the deceased in the said suit, or in any other cause or suit which may be commenced in the same or in any other Court between the parties, or any other parties, touching the matters at issue in the said cause or suit, and until a final decree shall be made therein and carried into complete execution.

 


Section 252. Administration limited to purpose of becoming party to suit to be brought against administrator

If, at the expiration of twelve months from the date of any probate or letters of administration, the executor or administrator to whom the same has been granted is absent from the State within which the Court which has granted the probate or letters of administration exercises jurisdiction, the Court may grant, to any person whom it may think fit, letters of administration limited to the purpose of becoming and being made a party to a suit to be brought against the executor or administrator, and carrying the decree which may be made therein into effect.

 


Section 253. Administration limited to collection and preservation of deceased’s property

In any case in which it appears necessary for preserving the property of a deceased person, the Court within whose jurisdiction any of the property is situate may grant to any person, whom such Court may think fit, letters of administration limited to the collection and preservation of the property of the deceased and to the giving of discharges for debts due to his estate, subject to the directions of the Court.

 


Section 254. Appointment, as administrator, of person other than one who, in ordinary circumstances, would be entitled to administration

(1) When a person has died intestate, or leaving a will of which there is no executor willing and competent to act or where the executor is, at the time of the death of such person, resident out of the State, and it appears to the Court to be necessary or convenient to appoint some person to administer the estate or any part thereof, other than the person who, in ordinary circumstances, would be entitled to a grant of administration, the Court may, in its discretion, having regard to consanguinity, amount of interest, the safety of the estate and probability that it will be properly administered, appoint such person as it thinks fit to be administrator.


(2) In every such case letters of administration may be limited or not as the Court thinks fit.


Grants with exception

 


Section 255. Probate or administration, with will annexed, subject to exception

Whenever the nature of the case requires that an exception be made, probate of a will, or letters of administration with the will annexed, shall be granted subject to such exception.

 


Section 256. Administration with exception

Whenever the nature of the case requires that an exception be made, letters of administration shall be granted subject to such exception.


Grants of the rest

 


Section 257. Probate or administration of rest

Whenever a grant with exception of probate, or of letters of administration with or without the will annexed, has been made, the person entitled to probate or administration of the remainder of the deceased’s estate may take a grant of probate or letters of administration, as the case may be, of the rest of the deceased’s estate.


Grant of effects unadministered

 


Section 258. Grant of effects unadministered

If an executor to whom probate has been granted has died, leaving a part of the testator’s estate unadministered, a new representative may be appointed for the purpose of administering such part of the estate.

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