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Doctrine of pith and substance

 Pith and substance Doctrine and Objects

The Constitution of India separates the vastness of the rule of law between the Institute and the provinces in the manner of the Seventh Order.


Schedule Seven clarifies matters and distinguishes the power to make laws between the Institute and the State.

List I or Union List contains matters in which the Agency has the power to make laws, e.g. Defense, Foreign Affairs and Finance.

Table II or State list contains topics where the State has the power to make laws, e.g. social order, health and sanitation.

Table III or the Related Schedule contains titles where both the Institution and the State have legislative power, e.g. Education, Forestry and Justice Management.

Although their areas of influence are well established in Schedule Seven, a conflict often arises as to whether the Institution or State, as it may be, is interfering with the other. To deal with this conflict, the Indian courts have changed a number of doctrines and the ancient doctrine of pith (the essence of something) and the essence (the essential part of something) is one of them.

Pith Doctrine and Object Origin

It is widely believed that the origin of the doctrine of pith and substance is in Canada and was introduced in a case called Cushing v. Dupuy in 1880. Constitution and Schedule Seven. In India, it has become a popular teaching that became the basis for many of the landmark Supreme Court decisions.

What is the Doctrine of Pith and Substance?

The doctrine is that in various spheres state legislatures and unions are formed at the top, they should not enter the sphere of design.


However, if one person between a district and a Center intervenes in another, the courts will apply Pith Doctrine and Object.

If the essence and context, that is, the real purpose of the law pertains to the legislative power of the legislature, it should be construed as meaning, although the context may not be involved in matters that are not under the jurisdiction of the legislature. .

The Privy Council applied this teaching in the case of Profulla Kumar Mukherjee v Bank of Khulna.


In this case, the Bengal Borrowing Act of 1946 passed by the State Legislature was challenged and argued that parts of the law deal with notes of promise; moderate title.

The Privy Council while upholding the legitimacy of the opposition law stated that the Bengal Money Lenders Act is part of a law relating to lenders and lenders -  although it enters by mistake. On the Promissory note - the central theme.

In the Bombay v FN Balsara region, the Bombay Prohibition Act was challenged on the grounds that it had inadvertently intervened in the import and export of alcohol - the central theme. The court, while upholding the controversial law, declared that the Act was as important and important as the theme of the State, even though it had mistakenly interfered with the important subject.


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