Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
been formulated with the objective to eradicate the production, import and export or
100 ozone depleting substances and mandates all the parties to submit an annual report on
the production, Import and export or these substances and formulate the process for reducing
Strength: It recognises that different countries are placed differently with respect to
their requirement and use of certain substances for industrial development. While
acknowledging this, it provides for an extended period for developing countries of 10.
15 years for elimination of a substance
It established a Multilateral Fund to financially assist the developing countries in their
process for phasing out of ozone depleting substance
Strength: Precautionary principle- It gives lending to the precautionary principle
which desists countries from not taking because of scientific uncertainties of the
possible future harm and thereby encourages them to take action in the present.
An Implementation committee has been stipulated under the Protocol which is
endowed with the duty to review the submitted reports and analyse whether the
parties are in compliance with the protocol. Additionally, it has to recommend areas
of improvement to the meeting of Parties (decisional body) by assessing the defaulting
Strength: It prevents parties from trade between parties and non parties in harmful
substances which are ozone depleting. It is also mandated that Parties take informed
decisions after considering the possible environmental impact of the decisions
Strength: It is an accommodative document amenable to including new chemicals
which are discovered to have an ozone depleting essence.
Weaknesses of this Convention include
Non regulation of Ver Short-Lived Substances (VSLS)- since these substances exist
for very short periods of time and their regulation becomes difficult.
Ozone and Climate Change Intersection- The Montreal Protocol did not exhaustively
address this intersection possibly because of lack of research
Geo-Engineering- One of the ways in which the atmosphere was protected from
radiation was through the spraying or sulphate particles which reflected Back the solar
radiation. However, sulphate aerosol nas detrimental effects on the ozone layer.
Illegal trade- I here has been trade or OD even after the Montreal Protocol which has
Impeded its effectiveness.