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Montreal Protocol

 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

been formulated with the objective to eradicate the production, import and export or

100 ozone depleting substances and mandates all the parties to submit an annual report on

the production, Import and export or these substances and formulate the process for reducing

Strength: It recognises that different countries are placed differently with respect to

their requirement and use of certain substances for industrial development. While

acknowledging this, it provides for an extended period for developing countries of 10.

15 years for elimination of a substance

It established a Multilateral Fund to financially assist the developing countries in their

process for phasing out of ozone depleting substance

Strength: Precautionary principle- It gives lending to the precautionary principle

which desists countries from not taking because of scientific uncertainties of the

possible future harm and thereby encourages them to take action in the present.

An Implementation committee has been stipulated under the Protocol which is

endowed with the duty to review the submitted reports and analyse whether the

parties are in compliance with the protocol. Additionally, it has to recommend areas

of improvement to the meeting of Parties (decisional body) by assessing the defaulting


Strength: It prevents parties from trade between parties and non parties in harmful

substances which are ozone depleting. It is also mandated that Parties take informed

decisions after considering the possible environmental impact of the decisions

Strength: It is an accommodative document amenable to including new chemicals

which are discovered to have an ozone depleting essence. 

Weaknesses of this Convention include

Non regulation of Ver Short-Lived Substances (VSLS)- since these substances exist

for very short periods of time and their regulation becomes difficult.

Ozone and Climate Change Intersection- The Montreal Protocol did not exhaustively

address this intersection possibly because of lack of research

Geo-Engineering- One of the ways in which the atmosphere was protected from

radiation was through the spraying or sulphate particles which reflected Back the solar

radiation. However, sulphate aerosol nas detrimental effects on the ozone layer.

Illegal trade- I here has been trade or OD even after the Montreal Protocol which has

Impeded its effectiveness. 


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