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  The term “political” cane simply understood by the  public affairs of the state, powers exercised by the state government, policy making and authority of the government. A political system seeks to inherently minimise conflict and give precedence to order over conflict. A political system comprises primarily of people/ individuals/groups or collection of groups, this type of machinery functions with the conditions of general scarcity as there is not enough for everybody. As an individual, it is human nature to place our personal needs in higher value than other lesser important things that could be valuable to somebody else. For example, for a blind person, a device that will allow her to regain her vision will be more valuable than a latest new smart phone in the market. Difference of the value of a particular thing varies from person to person and conflicts are bound to arise between or among different parties when there is scarcity in  this possession. For instance if there is only one guitar available in the market and there are three people in conquest to posses this guitar, then a conflict arises among them as they come into conclusion. Political systems must strive to solve theses conflicts by expanding and negotiations, by compromise or by force. 

However we need to properly understand the term political and discuss the importance of the role of institutions  that help constitute political.  Institutions like the legislature, executive, judiciary, non state actors, social institutions and religious institutions, party organisations and the democracy. 

  1. Legislature- The legislature is a body go the government having law and policy formulating functions. This body is influential in giving explanations to the meaning of what is political a they are solely responsible for the laws are rules for the the public or political body known as the country. They have the power to make laws and repeal them as and when they feel that a particular law is not benefit for the  political public entity. The member to this legislative body are representatives that have by elect by the mass public who rationally choose them for  their ability to contribute to the improvement of the country. The legislative helps express public opinion on matters of social, economic and political issues faced by the country  on a higher and wider platform with deliberative discussions and debates. Therefore this law making body plays an integral role on defining what political is and is not. 

  2. Executive- the executive body is an organ of the government to help execute the laws and policies implemented by the legislature, that is not all, the executive body is answerable to the public if any action attracts criticism and  holds responsibility in ensuring proper formulation of public policies and laws. This body is also In charge of  implementing foreign policies and representing our country through diplomacy other countries so that each country’s political ideologies live peacefully in coexistence despite having sharp contrasts. Theses diplomats ensure safety of the country from any dangers of eternal sovereignty. The executive also takes on the burden of keeping a check on the law making functions of the legislature and will raise questions if a law formulated by them is not in beneficial to the public entity.          

  3. Judiciary- the judiciary is the organ of the government that is responsible in protecting the          citizens from policies that violates their fundamental rights are in violation of the constitution of the country. The election of judges to judiciary are done in a fair and impartial manner and these judges adjudicate public policies and actions that are violative of the laws prescribed by the constitution. They keep a check on oppressive policies passed by the government, unreasonable laws restrictions imposed by them and ensure that the ruling party does not transform into a dictatorial governance. For example, the supreme court ordered for the restoration of Internet services in Jammu and Kashmir  which had been imposed by the government.  

  4. Non state actors- such bodies like NGOs are organisations that are not driven by  governmental influence but they still have a certain amount of influence over society, similar to the of the government. They not only influence the society but also have a great influence oner international governance. For example the International committee of the Red Cross ’s campaign “led to the development of a new field of International law, namely international humanitarian law”.NGOs with their large network of globally concerned people largely aid in providing information and raising questions on the accountability of the government’s actions. The are  independent from the influence of the government as usually advocate for the protection of peace, harming and human rights. 

  5. Religious institutes- In a secular country like ours there exist many religious groups each with its own distinct principles and behaviours. There are many researches that prove that religion plays a pivotal role in mobilising votes for elections. This is the reason why many political parties entice  religious affinity in order to mobilise the votes of these devotees. Policies made by the government also should be in such a manner that it does not offend any religion or else conflict in political mechanism is bound to occur. Hence political entities are conscious about this and formulate policies accordingly. For example, a particular region omits the intake of a particular meat, then with majority support this meat can be banned from sale. 

  6. Party organisations- Political parties are identified as a group having the same political ideology and goals. They contest in elections with aspirations to form the government and advocate their party ideologies while running the nation. The legislature and executive comprise of members of there political parities the than contested fro elections. The political party that is able to get majority of votes forms the governments and the other parties act as opposition and behaves in a way to check any faulty move by the ruling party in power. However if there is too much internal disharmony and none of the parties are able to attain the majority to form the government, then an alarming situation is born and this will pose great risks the political system and democracy as a hole of the nation. 

  7. Democracy and voting-  The  people of the nation play an important role in defining the political system in India. The power of choosing the government is solely in the hands of people and this political power vested upon the people are expected to make rational judgements while they elect a leader whose policies will best address their situations. If a voter carelessly casts their vote then it it highly likely the an inefficient government will take power and formulate poor public policies and inadequate laws for protection and safeguards of public interest. Thus voting plays a vita role in helping us understand the term ‘political’ . 


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