Skip to main content



The UDHR consists of a Preamble and 30 Articles, setting forth the basic human rights and fundamental freedoms to which all men and women, everywhere in the world, are entitled, without any discrimination. The rights specified therein encompass both civil and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights. Proclaimed by the General Assembly as a ‘common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations’, the UDHR is addressed to every individual and every organ of the society that they shall strive to promote respect for and to secure the universal and effective recognition and observance of the rights and freedoms enumerated in it. Based on the content and the nature of the rights enumerated therein, the 30 Articles of the UDHR can be broadly classified into four categories

  • Articles general in nature

  • Articles proclaiming civil and political rights

  • Articles proclaiming economic, social and cultural rights

  • Concluding articles

The UDHR has exercised a profound influence, both internationally and nationally, since its adoption. The UDHR provided the framework, upon which the two international human rights covenants, i.e., ICCPR and ICESCR, were constructed and adopted by the UNGA on 16 December 1966. It has been the source of inspiration and has been the basis for the UN in making advances in standard setting as contained in number of international human rights treaties. The core international human rights instruments make reference to the UDHR. It has inspired a number of declarations and international conventions concluded under the auspices of the UN and of the specialized agencies. The UDHR as a whole or its different articles have been frequently quoted in the resolutions of the UNGA as justification for actions taken by the UN. The UDHR has also inspired major regional human rights instruments. These instruments refer to the UDHR in their preambles. e UDHR, since its adoption in 1948, has undergone a dramatic transformation. It might not have been binding when it was adopted but it has now become binding or assumed legal implications. It has an indirect legal effect. Scholars who support this view advance three theories in support of their claim. Firstly, they argue that the UN’s consistent reliance on the UDHR when applying the human rights provisions of the UN Charter compels the conclusion that the Declaration has come to be accepted as an authoritative interpretation of these provisions. According to this view, the Member States of the UN have agreed that they have an obligation under the Charter to promote ‘universal respect for, and observance of’ the rights which the Declaration proclaims. Secondly, they contend that the repeated reliance on and resort to the UDHR by governments and intergovernmental organizations represent the requisite state practice which is capable of giving rise to customary international law. This theory leads to the conclusion that the Declaration, in toto, or, at the very least, some of its provisions, e.g., prohibition of slavery, torture, etc., and not all, have become customary international law and thus binding on all states, not only on Member States of the UN. And thirdly, they contend that the international human rights norms contained in the UDHR constitute general principles of law.


Popular posts from this blog

60 Minute Marriage Counselling Session On Phone

Description A 60 minute phone call with an expert Marriage\Relationship Counselor to discuss your marriage\relationship related issues. Counselling aims to resolve issues and improve communication in a relationship. Couples’ counselling works with both people in the relationship, however sessions can start with one individual, working towards the involvement of the other partner. What's Included a) 60 minute phone call with the counselor where you can discuss all your issues and seek guidance. What's Not Included a) Counselling session via meeting

INCOME TAX SECTION 32AD - Investment in new plant or machinery in notified backward areas in certain States

 Description (1) Where an assessee, sets up an undertaking or enterprise for manufacture or production of any article or thing, on or after the 1st day of April, 2015 in any backward area notified by the Central Government in this behalf, in the State of Andhra Pradesh or in the State of Bihar or in the State of Telangana or in the State of West Bengal, and acquires and installs any new asset for the purposes of the said undertaking or enterprise during the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 2015 and ending before the 1st day of April, 2020 in the said backward area, then, there shall be allowed a deduction of a sum equal to fifteen per cent of the actual cost of such new asset for the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which such new asset is installed. (2) If any new asset acquired and installed by the assessee is sold or otherwise transferred, except in connection with the amalgamation or demerger or re-organisation of business referred to in clause (xiii)or cla

Section 58B of The Advocates Act - Special provision relating to certain disciplinary proceedings

 Section 58B The Advocates Act Description (1) As from the 1st day of September, 1963, every proceeding in respect of any disciplinary matter in relation to an existing advocate of a High Court shall, save as provided in the first proviso to sub-section (2), be disposed of by the State Bar Council in relation to that High Court, as if the existing advocate had been enrolled as an advocate on its roll. (2) If immediately before the said date, there is any proceeding in respect of any disciplinary matter in relation to an existing advocate pending before any High Court under the Indian Bar Councils Act, 1926 (38 of 1926), such proceeding shall stand transferred to the State Bar Council in relation to that High Court, as if it were a proceeding pending before the corresponding Bar Council under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 56: Provided that where in respect of any such proceeding the High Court has received the finding of a Tribunal constituted under section 11 of the Indian B