DUTIES OF GUARDIAN
According to Section three of the Indian Majority Act, 1875, someone domiciled in the Republic of
India who is below the age of eighteen years, is a minor and a guardian is the caretaker of a minor,
his or her property, or both. The duty of a guardian is to ensure the welfare of the minor and look
after his health and education.
Guardianship under Hindu Law:
The law of guardianship is not laid down in ancient texts, it was developed by the courts during the
British regime. Under the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956 a guardian can be defined as
"a person having the care of the person of the minor or of his property or both person and property.”
To ensure the welfare of the child is the priority of a guardian, it includes both physical and moral
There are three types of guardians:
Natural Guardians: Hindu Law recognises only three natural guardians of minor children- the father
is the natural guardian and after his death, mother becomes the natural guardian of the children and
in case of married minor girl, her husband is her guardian. Section 13 of the Hindu Minority and
Guardianship Act lays down that welfare of children is paramount to father's right of
guardianship. The position of adopted children is same as natural born children. In case of
illegitimate children, mother becomes the natural guardian of the child even if the father is alive.
Testamentary Guardians: Under the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956, testamentary
power of appointing a guardian has been conferred on both parents by the way of will. The guardian
of a minor girl will cease to be the guardian of her person on her marriage, and the guardianship
cannot revive even if she becomes a widow while a minor. It is necessary for the testamentary
guardian to accept the guardianship, it may be express or implied.
Guardians Appointed by the Court: The district courts are empowered to appoint guardians under
the Guardians and Wards Act, 1890. The District Court may appoint or declare any person as the
guardian whenever it considers it necessary for the welfare of the child. The District Court has the
power to appoint or declare a guardian in respect of the person as well as separate property of the
minor. Such guardians are also called Statutory Guardian.
Guardianship by affinity: The guardian by affinity is the guardian of a minor widow. In Paras Ram
V. State, it was held that the nearest sapinda of the husband automatically becomes a guardian of the
minor widow on the death of her husband.
De Facto Guardian: A de facto guardian is a person who takes continuous interest in the welfare of
the minor's person or in the management and administration of his property without any authority of
Guardianship under Muslim Law
The source of law of guardianship and custody are certain verses in the Koran and a few ahadis.
Guardians are classified int following categories:
Natural Guardians: In both the Sunnis and the Shias, the father is recognised as natural guardian and
the mother is not recognised as a guardian, natural or otherwise, even after the death of the father.
Father’s guardianship extends only to legitimate children not illegitimate ones. Mother is not
guardian of even illegitimate children but only a custodian. Among the Sunnis, after the death of the
father, the guardianship passes on to the executor. Among the Shias, after the father, the
guardianship belongs to the grandfather.
Testamentary Guardian: A testamentary guardian may be a one that is appointed as guardian of a
minor beneath a will. Only father or, in his absence, paternal grandfather has the right to appoint a
testamentary guardian. A non-Muslim and a feminine might also be appointed as a testamentary
guardian. However, under Shia law, a non- Muslim cannot be chosen as a testamentary guardian.
Guardian appointed by the Court: On the failure of the natural guardians and testamentary
guardians, the kazi was entrusted with the power of appointment of guardian of a Muslim minor.
The appointment of a guardian by the court is ruled by the Guardianship and Wards Act, 1890.
Guardianship Under Christian Law
The Guardians and Wards Act, 1890 is resorted to in case of Christian minors. According to section
17 a guardian is appointed by the court keeping in mind several factors such as religion of the
minor, the character and capacity of the proposed guardian and if the minor is old enough, his
preference is taken into consideration. As per section 24, a guardian of the person of a ward is
charged with the custody of the ward and must look to his support, health and education, and such
other matters as the law to which the ward is subject requires.