Indian constitution is the lengthiest written constitution, it is embodied with 449 articles, 12 schedules,25 parts,5 appendices, and 101 amendments. Our Indian Constitution consists of 146,385 words. The preamble of the constitution consists of words like a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic. These are a few rights that are given by the Indian government to its citizens. It also ensures that the citizen of India gets justice, equality, liberty, and promote fraternity.
The constitution mentions various rights and duties. The most important rights are fundamental rights. These rights were first demanded in the year 1895, it came from the constitution of India bill which is popularly known as the swaraj bill. This bill was introduced in the era of the emergence of Indian nationalism and increasingly vocal demands by Indians for self-government. it talks about freedom of speech, right to privacy, right to franchise, etc. the fundamental rights were included in the first draft constitution later in the second draft of the constitution, and finally in the third draft constitution prepared by the drafting committee.
Case; T.R.Kothandaraman v. T.N water supply and Drainage board, in this case, it was observed by the judge that "the golden triangle of our constitution is composed of articles 14.19 and 21. incorporation of such articles was made for purpose of paving such a path for the people of India which may see them close to the gathering of liberty, equality, and fraternity. It could also be said that the trio assists the deprived class and also destroys the exploiters of the depressed class.”
The golden triangle consists of articles 14, 19, and 21. Article 14 talks about the right to equality. This right provides equality to every citizen in the country. Article 19 talks about the freedom of speech and expression and article 21 protect life and personal liberty. These provisions are called golden rules as they provide the basis for the smooth running of the life of the citizen of the country. This rule provides all-rounder protection to individuals from encroachment upon their rights from the society and others as well.
Article 14 is an important segment as the provision also gains importance because the enactment of such provisions leads to abolishing of the certain inhuman customary practice of our country .this article provides legal protection, which states that the law provides legal protection of the law should be the same for every person with some necessary exceptions. Article 19 as stated above talks about the freedom of speech. But this right has some restrictions such as security of the state, public order, decency and morality, contempt of court, defamation, etc. On the other hand, the article21 covers the most important and sensitive area as it talks about the protection of life.
In the conclusion, the drafter of the constitution planned it very conveniently that the Indian constitution consists of fundamental rights and fundamental duties. The above articles are very important as discussed in the above article, therefore, understanding every article is extremely important.