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international court of justice

 The International Court of Justice or ICJ is one of the six organs of the United Nation (UN). The ICJ located in Hague, Netherland. The ICJ as established in 1945 by the charter of the UN & began its functioning in 1946. The ICJ is the successor of Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ) which is established by League of Nations. League of Nations was established after the World  War I in order to maintain international peace & resolving international dispute. League of Nations head quarter located in Geneva, Switzerland. The league of Nations began with four permanent members namely Great Britain, France, Italy & Japan with four non-permanent members. The first four non-permanent members were Belgium, Brazil, Greece & Spain. After World War II the league of Nations were replaced with United Nation & PCIJ were replaced with ICJ in 1945. 

The last President of PCIJ became the first President of ICJ is Judge Jose Gustavo from El Salvador. The role of ICJ is diverse in nature from settling disputes in accordance with the international law among the Nations to giving advice on legal questions arises over international law. The official languages of the ICJ are English & French. The judges of the court are assisted by a Registry which is a administrative organ of the ICJ. 

The ICJ has 15 judges who are elected by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) & United Nations Security Council (UNSC) for the term of nine years. The elections of the candidates were held at United Nations Head Quarter in New York City during the annual UNGA meeting. The President & Vice-President of the courts are elected for 3 years term by secret ballot. The judges are eligible for re-election in the ICJ. The ICJ is funded by the United Nations. ICJ also referred as World Court. The ICJ concerned with the subject matter of sovereignty, boundary & maritime disputes, trade, natural resources, human rights, treaty violations and more. The ICJ does not allowed to initiate Criminal prosecution on individual nations or group of nations. The power to initiate criminal prosecution lies with the International Criminal Court (ICC) located in Hague, Netherlands. 

The 1st case that came to ICJ was brought by the UK against Albania over incidents in the Corfu Channel, a narrow strait between the Greek island of Corfu & Albania on the European mainland. The case was filed in 1947 in the ICJ under Justice Jose Gustavo, President of ICJ. India is the party to a case at the ICJ on 6 occasion with 4 times in conflict with Pakistan. The recent case was listed at the ICJ was Kulbhushan Jadhav case, 2019 where India is in conflict with Pakistan over espionage activities in the Pakistan by the Indian. 

Recently, Ukraine has accused Russia in the ICJ for falsely claiming that acts of genocide have occurred in the states of Ukraine. The dispute between Russia & Ukraine concerning convention on the prevention & punishment of the crime of Genocide also known as Genocide convention.  


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