On November 6, 1917, during World War I, when the Ottoman Empire was on the edge of defeat, Sir Arthur Balfour, then the British Foreign Minister, made an announcement that the British would provide the Jews with a national home in Palestine. The British, on the other hand, were cunning. On the other hand, they signed a treaty with France and Russia known as the Sykes-Picot agreement, in which they declared their intention to keep Palestine as part of their own territory. They publicly declared that Palestine would be a Jewish homeland, but they were secretly plotting to take and govern the country in the long run. They also promised Palestine to the Arabs as a result of their opposition to the Ottoman Empire's rule.
Following the conclusion of World War I, a new government in Palestine was established, and this administration was known as the British Mandate of Palestine (BMP). Migrations were in large numbers under this mandate, and strategies of divide and rule were used. Jews began purchasing land from Arabs in the early 1900s. They drove out the Palestinian Arabs who lived in the area. It was as a result of this that small colonies, known as Jewish settlements, were established around the country. Due to the fact that the new immigrants refused to lease or sell land to Palestinians, as well as hire them, the Arab community in Palestine was opposed to the expansion in the Jewish population. When it came to the Jewish and Arab communities in the 1920s, relations between the two groups deteriorated and enmity between the two groups increased.
Arabs rose up in revolt against the British in 1936 as a result of the outcome of this mission. In order to put down this uprising, the British enlisted the assistance of Jews, who formed a Jewish militia. However, following the crushing of this uprising, the British realised that in order to placate the Arabs, they would have to make some significant adjustments. And it was for this reason that Jewish immigration was banned. This resulted in widespread resentment among Jews, including the Jewish militia, which then began conspiring against the British as a result.
Then came the outbreak of World War II. The Holocaust claimed the lives of around 2 million Jews. Because of the recurrent strife between Arabs and Palestinians, the United Nations was tasked with overseeing the situation in Israel. As a result, an equitable split of territory was established between a Jewish state and a Palestinian Arab state. The history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict dates back to 1948, when the state of Israel was established.
The majority of Jerusalem's population was Muslim, with the remaining half being Jewish. As a result, the United Nations resolved that Jerusalem would be under international control. As soon as this declaration was made, all of Israel's neighbouring Arab countries began launching attacks against the Jewish state. This resulted in the outbreak of the first Arab-Israeli conflict, which lasted from 1948 to 1949. Egypt, Syria, Iraq, and the Transjordan region launched attacks on the newly formed state. Israel was victorious in the conflict and was able to expand its borders. However, there was a humanitarian catastrophe involving refugees that erupted at the time. A total of about 7 lakh persons were displaced or moved. Egypt was given sovereignty of the Gaza Strip, and Jordan was given control of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Additionally, Israel was given control of the remaining territories.
Following a few years, in 1967, a new war was fought between Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Israel. This battle was known as the Six Day War. Because to this battle, Israel was able to seize the Golan Heights, Gaza, the Sinai Peninsula, and parts of the West Bank. Arab states were humiliated in a resounding loss. Israel has increased its land area by a factor of three. However, due to diplomatic considerations, Israel later returned these conquered areas to their rightful owners. The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt. Gaza and the West Bank are still under Israeli authority, despite the passage of time.
After Egypt reclaimed Sinai from Israel in 1978, Israel reciprocated by recognising Egypt as the legitimate government of the Jewish state. This was a watershed moment in Israel's history since it marked the first time that an Arab state agreed to recognise the Jewish nation. Israel has achieved a diplomatic success with this decision. Slowly but steadily, the majority of Arab countries began to make peace with Israel. There were no longer any battles between countries.