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Bandhua Mukti Morcha v Union of India: Case Analysis

 Bandhua Mukti Morcha v Union of India: Case Analysis

Brief Facts

The petitioner, an association committed to the reason of the arrival of reinforced workers in the nation, tended to a letter to Hon’ble Bhagwati, J. asserting:

(1) that there were a large number of workers from various parts of the nation who were working in some of the stone quarries arrange in area Faridabad, the State of Haryana under “brutal and insufferable conditions;

(2) that a large number of them were reinforced workers;

(3) that the arrangements of the Constitution and different social welfare laws went to help the said labourers were definitely not being actualized with respect to these labourers.

The candidate also referenced in the letter the names of the stone quarries and points of interest of workers who were functioning as fortified workers and implored that a writ is given for legitimate usage of the different provisions of the social welfare enactment, for example, Mines Act, 1952 Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979, Contract Labor (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970, Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act, 1976, Minimum Wages Act, Workmen’s Compensation Act, Payment of Wages Act, Employees State Protection Act, Maternity Benefits Act and so forth material to these labourers working in the said stone quarries to finish the wretchedness, suffering and defencelessness of these casualties of the cruellest abuse. The Court treated the letter as a writ petition and designated a commission to ask into the charges made by the petitioner.

Issues Involved–

  • Regardless of whether Article 32 of the Constitution is pulled in to the moment case as no major right of the candidates or the labourers alluded to in the request are encroached.

  • Can a letter tended to with this Court be treated as a writ appeal and without any checked request this Court can be moved to practice its writ locale?

  • During a procedure under Article 32 of the Constitution, would this be able to Court be engaged to select any commission or an exploring body to enquire into the claims made and makes a report to this Court based on the inquiry to empower this Court to practice its capacity and locale under Article 32 of the Constitution?


In its judgment, the Court talked about the significance of securing children’s privileges or rights to education, security, health and improvement of India as a democratic country. While perceiving that child’s work couldn’t be nullified quickly because of monetary need, the Court found that down to earth steps could be taken to secure and advance the rights of youth in the destitution stricken and powerless populaces of Indian culture. On the side of its decision, the Court alluded to different basic rights and order standards of the Indian Constitution including, Article 21 (the right to life and individual freedom), Article 24 (denies work of children younger than 14 in plants, mines, or different dangerous ventures), Article 39 (e) (disallows constraining residents into employments unsuited for their age or quality), Article 39(f) (depicts the State’s obligations to shield youngsters from abuse and to guarantee kids the chances and offices to create in a sound way), and Article 45 (commands the State to give free obligatory training to all children beneath 14 years). The Court additionally noticed India’s commitments under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the Convention on the Rights of the Child to give free essential education to all kids in the nation, and to secure children against financial abuse. The measures requested to nullify child labor work set out in a prior case, M.C. Mehta v. Province of Tamil Nadu and Ors. was referenced by the Court and fused in requests to the States of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. The requests included guiding the States to find a way to outline arrangements to logically dispose of the labor of children beneath the age of 14; give obligatory instruction to all youngsters utilized in processing plants, mining, and different enterprises; guarantee that the children get supplement rich nourishments; and regulate occasional health registration.

Obiter dicta–

Not necessarily the aggrieved party always files a petition but also any person with a bonafide intention file a case in order to protect the rights of others and when it comes to the public interest or for the welfare of the common people a mere letter can also be treated as a writ petition.

Rationale behind the judgment

The State Government’s protest with regards to the viability of the writ request under Article 32 of the Constitution by the solicitors is indefensible. On the off chance that any of the resident brings under the steady gaze of the Court an objection that countless labourers or laborers are reinforced serfs or are being oppressed to exploitation by a couple of mine renters or temporary workers or managers or are being precluded the advantages from claiming social welfare laws, the State Government, which is, under our protected plan, accused of the strategic achieving another financial request where there will be social and monetary equity for everybody correspondence of status and open door for all, would respect a request by the court, so that in the event that it is discovered that there are in truth fortified workers or regardless of whether the labourers are not reinforced in the severe feeling of the term as characterized in the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act 1976 yet they are made to give forced labour or are relegated to an existence of absolute hardship and corruption, such a circumstance can be fixed by the State Government. Regardless of whether the State Government is on its own inquiry fulfilled that the labourers are not reinforced and are not constrained to give constrained work and are living and working in better than average conditions with all the essential necessities of life gave to them, the State Government ought not to shy away from a request by the court when a protest is brought by a resident, yet it ought to be on edge to fulfill the court and through the court, the individuals of the nation, that it is releasing its established commitment decently and enough and the labourers are being guaranteed social and financial equity.


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