First Information Report (S.154)
A First Information Report is the initial step in a criminal case recorded by the police and contains the basic knowledge of the crime committed, place of commission, time of commission, who was the victim, etc.
The definition for the First Information Report has been provided in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 by the virtue of Sec. 154.
SECTION 154 OF CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
“Every information relating to the commission of a cognizable offence, if given orally to an officer in charge of a police station, shall be reduced to writing by him or under his direction, and be read Over to the informant; and every such information, whether given in writing or reduced to writing as aforesaid, shall be signed by the person giving it, and the substance thereof shall be entered in a book to be kept by such officer in such form as the State Government may prescribe in this behalf”
As such first Information report is not defined in the code, it may be defined as follows: -
it is an information which is given to the police officer
Information must relate to a cognizable offence
It is an information first in point of time.
it is on the basis of this information that investigation into the offence commences.
SECTION 154 HAS A THREE-FOLD OBJECT:
To inform the District Magistrate and the Superintendent of Police, who are responsible for the peace and safety of the district, of the offences reported at the police station.
to make known to the judicial officers before whom the case is ultimately tried. What are the facts given out immediately after the occurrence and on what materials he investigation commenced.
To safeguard the accused against subsequent variations or additions.
Who can lodge an FIR?
By an aggrieved person or somebody on his behalf.
Any person who is aware of the offence by being either
An eye witness and/or
By the accused himself.
By the SHO on his own knowledge or information even when a cognizable offence is committed in view of an officer in charge, he can register a case himself however he is not bound to take down in writing any information and even if the information is only by a medical certificate upon arrival of the injured, then the (SHO) should enter it in daily diary and go to hospital for recording detailed statement of injured.