Sunday, 17 July 2022

Law of TORT

 Law of TORT


Introduction

The word tort has been derived from the latin term ‘tortum’, which means ‘to twist’, it includes the conduct which is not straight or lawful but is twisted, crooked or unlawful. This branch of law deals with the acts which Are wrongful and whereby the wrongdoer violates some rights vested in another person.

 

French for wrong, a civil wrong, or wrongful act, whether intentional or accidental, from which injury occurs to another. Torts include all negligence cases as well as intentional wrongs which result in harm. The tort law is one of the major areas of law (along with contract, real property and criminal law), and results in more civil litigation than any other category. Some intentional torts may also be crimes such as assault, battery, wrongful death, fraud, conversion, and trespass on property form the basis for a lawsuit for damages by the injured party. Defamation, including intentionally telling harmful untruths about another, either by print or broadcast (libel) or orally (slander), is a tort and used to be a crime as well.

 a civil wrong. Tortious liability arises from the breach of a duty fixed by law; this duty is towards persons generally and its breach is redressable by an action for unliquidated damages. It is part of the English law of obligations along with contract and restitution. 

 Torts may be committed with force, as trespasses, which may be an injury to the person, such as assault, battery, imprisonment; to the property in possession; or they may be committed without force. Torts of this nature are to the absolute or relative rights of persons, or to personal property in possession or reversion, or to real property, corporeal or incorporeal, in possession or reversion: these injuries may be either by   nonfeasance, malfeasance, or misfeasance.


Tort is a Civil Wrong

Tort belongs to the category of civil wrongs. The basic nature of civil wrong is different from a criminal wrong. In the case of civil wrong , the injured party i.e., the plaintiff , institutes civil proceedings against the wrongdoer, i.e., the defendant . In such case , the main remedy is damages. The plaintiff is compensated by the defendant for the injury caused to him by the defendant . In the case of criminal wrong , on the other hand , the criminal proceedings against the accused are brought by the state . Moreover , in the case of a criminal wrong , the individual , who is the victim of the crime, i.e., the sufferer, is not compensated. Justice is administered by punishing the wrongdoer in such a case. It is , however , possible that the same act done by a person may result in two wrongs , a crime as well as tort, at the same time. In such a case, both the civil and the criminal remedies would concurrently be available. There would be civil action requiring the defendant to pay compensation as well as a criminal action awarding punishment to the wrongdoer


TORT IS REDRESSIBLE BY AN ATION FOR UNLIQUIDATED DAMAGES

Damages is the most important  remedy for tort.  After the wrong has been committed , generally it is the monetary compensation  which may satisfy the injured party. After the commission of the wrong . It is generally not possible to undo the harm which has already been caused

Example-   the reputation of a person has been injured, the original position cannot be restored back, the only thing which can be done in such a case is to see what is a monetary equivalent to the harm by the way of defamation and the sum arrived is asked to be paid  by the defendant to the plaintiff. 

There are other remedies also which could be available when the tort  is committed like

  1. In the tort of nuisance-- injunction 


Key differences between crimes and torts

Crimes:

1 A wrong against the state

2 Case will usually be started by the state

3 Accused will be prosecuted in the criminal courts

4 The accused faces “criminal charges”

5 If guilty the defendant will be prosecuted/punished

6 Main purpose of the criminal law is to maintain law & order and to protect the public

Torts:

1 A wrong against an individual

2 Case will be started by the individual affected (the claimant)

3 Defendant will be sued in the civil courts

4 A civil action will be brought against the defendant

5 If liable the defendant will have to pay damages/compensation to the claimant

6 The main purpose of the law of torts is to provide the individual who has a suffered from an infringement of a right/duty, with a remedy to enforce their rights


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