Thursday, 28 July 2022

STUDY ON NON - PROLIFERATION TREATY

 STUDY ON NON - PROLIFERATION TREATY


INTRODUCTION

The five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) agreed to limit the spread of nuclear weapons and to avoid nuclear conflict at the start of the year 2022.

Ahead of a review of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 1970, the vow was made in a rare joint declaration.

The comment came as tensions between Russia and the United States reached levels not seen since the Cold War as a result of Russia's force build-up near the Ukrainian border.

The statement was also made as international powers try to reach an agreement with Iran on reviving the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) 2015, which was put on hold when the United States pulled out of the pact in 2018.


THE PLEDGE:

It is necessary to prevent the spread of such weapons. A nuclear war is unwinnable and should never be conducted. As our primary obligations, we must avert nuclear war between nuclear-weapon states and reduce strategic threats. For as long as nuclear weapons exist, they should be used to defend the country, discourage aggression, and avert conflict. They intend to retain and strengthen their national safeguards against the unintentional or unauthorised use of nuclear weapons.

NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY

The NPT is an international treaty whose mission is to prevent nuclear weapons and weapons technology from spreading, to promote peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to advance the goal of disarmament.

In 1968, the pact was signed, and it went into effect in 1970. It currently has 190 member states. It requires countries to abandon any current or future ambitions to create nuclear weapons in exchange for access to nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. It is the only multilateral pact that contains a legally binding commitment to the aim of nuclear disarmament by nuclear-weapon states. Nuclear-weapon states are those that manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device before January 1, 1967, as specified by the NPT.

INDIA’S STAND:

India is one of only five countries that either did not sign the NPT or signed but later withdrew, joining Pakistan, Israel, North Korea, and South Sudan on the list. The NPT has long been viewed as discriminatory by India, which has refused to sign it. India had rejected non-proliferation treaties since they were selectively applicable to non-nuclear countries and legitimised the monopoly of the five nuclear armed states.


CONCLUSION

Rising energy demands have prompted an increase in the number of countries seeking nuclear energy, and many countries desire to be energy self-sufficient in order to assure a reliable and sustainable domestic energy supply. Every country requires clean energy, progress, and peaceful cohabitation.

As a result, the international community faces a difficult task in reconciling states' need for energy independence with their desire to lessen the intrusiveness of IAEA safeguards while also reducing the risk of proliferation.Non-nuclear weapon states also support New START and other initiatives, but want to see more tangible steps taken to reduce the role of nuclear weapons in national security doctrines, lower alert levels, increase transparency, and other measures.More regions around the world, preferably including non-nuclear weapon states, should agree to establish nuclear-weapon-free zones. In addition, the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons is a positive step toward nuclear disarmament.




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